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BACKGROUND Obesity is a common cause of non-communicable disease. Guidelines recommend that physicians screen and offer brief advice to motivate weight loss through referral to behavioural weight loss programmes. However, physicians rarely intervene and no trials have been done on the subject. We did this trial to establish whether physician brief(More)
Globally, water is an important resource required for the survival of human beings. Water is a scarce resource in the semi-arid environments, including South Africa. In South Africa, several studies have quantified evapotranspiration (ET) in different ecosystems at a local scale. Accurate spatially explicit information on ET is rare in the country mainly(More)
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing enables accurate estimation and monitoring of vegetation structural properties. Airborne and spaceborne LiDAR is known to provide reliable information on terrain elevation and forest canopy height over closed forests. However, it has rarely been used to characterize savannas, which have a complex structure(More)
This is the second part of a two-part paper considering a measurement network design based on a stochas-tic Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) developed by Marek Uliasz, in this case for South Africa. A sensitivity analysis was performed for different specifications of the network design parameters which were applied to this South African test(More)
Net radiation is a key component of the energy balance, whose estimation accuracy has an impact on energy flux estimates from satellite data. In typical remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms, the outgoing shortwave and longwave components of net radiation are obtained from remote sensing data, while the incoming shortwave (S) and longwave (L)(More)
In subterranean species where excavation is energetically expensive, efficient spatial navigation is vital to reducing the costs of locating important resources such as food and mates. While spatial navigational ability is positively correlated with sociality in subterranean mammals, we have a less clear understanding of the role of habitat complexity on(More)
This paper describes the generation of optimal atmospheric measurement networks for determining carbon dioxide fluxes over Australia using inverse methods. A La-grangian particle dispersion model is used in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to calculate the relationship between weekly surface fluxes, comprising contributions(More)
A combination of measurement and modelling was used to find a pragmatic solution to estimate the annual total evaporation from the rare and indigenous Nkazana Peat Swamp Forest (PSF) on the east coast of Southern Africa to improve the water balance estimates within the area. Actual total evaporation (ET a) was measured during three window periods (between 7(More)
INTRODUCTION The global prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in recent decades. There is a pressing need to identify effective interventions to treat established obesity that can be delivered at scale. The aim of the Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) study is to determine the clinical effectiveness,(More)
Mixed effects approach to the analysis of the stepped wedge cluster randomised trial-accounting for the confounding effect of time The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial is becoming more popular, as it is both logistically more viable for large-scale intervention roll-outs than the conventional parallel cluster randomised trial, and can be more(More)