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C57Bl/6 mice were administered a high fat, Western diet (WD, 41% fat) or a very high fat lard diet (HFL, 60% fat), and evaluated for cognitive ability using the Stone T-maze and for biochemical markers of brain inflammation. WD consumption resulted in significantly increased body weight and astrocyte reactivity, but not impaired cognition, microglial(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent even with widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), suggesting a potential role for co-morbidities in neurologic decline. Indeed, it is well established that ART drugs, particularly HIV protease inhibitors, can induce hyperlipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance; all(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a(More)
This study describes the effects of long-chain fatty acids on inflammatory signaling in cultured astrocytes. Data show that the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, as well as lauric acid and stearic acid, trigger the release of TNFα and IL-6 from astrocytes. Unsaturated fatty acids were unable to induce cytokine release from cultured astrocytes.(More)
This study describes how age and high fat diet affect the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX). Specifically, NOX activity and subunit expression were evaluated in the frontal cerebral cortex of 7-, 16-, and 24-month old mice following a 4-month exposure to either Western diet (WD, 41% calories from fat) or very high fat lard diet (VHFD, 60% calories from fat).(More)
Excitotoxicity and/or microglial reactivity might underlie neurologic dysfunction in HIV patients. The HIV regulatory protein Tat is both neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory, suggesting that Tat might participate in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study was undertaken to evaluate if Tat can increase extracellular(More)
Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is strongly associated with both extensive deposition of amyloid β peptides and oxidative stress, but the exact role of these indices in the development of dementia is not clear. This study was designed to determine the relationship between cognitive impairment, activation of the free radical producing enzyme(More)
It is well established that HIV antiretroviral drugs, particularly protease inhibitors, frequently elicit a metabolic syndrome that may include hyperlipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. Metabolic dysfunction in non-HIV-infected subjects has been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment in epidemiological and experimental studies, but it(More)
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