Alec R Sandy

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Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We(More)
X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy was used to characterize the wave vector- and temperature-dependent dynamics of spontaneous thermal fluctuations in a sponge (L3) phase that occurs in a blend of a symmetric poly(styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer with a polystyrene homopolymer. Measurements of the intermediate scattering function(More)
We present a technique that allows measuring the field of an x-ray line focus using far-field intensity measurements only. One-dimensional phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity is used to recover a hard x-ray beam focused by a compound kinoform lens. The reconstruction is found to be in good agreement with independent knife-edge scan(More)
We have fabricated a stack of five 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) bilayers supported on a polished silicon substrate in excess water. The density profile of these stacks normal to the substrate was obtained through analysis of x-ray reflectivity. Near the substrate, we find the layer roughness and repeat spacing are both significantly(More)
Motivated by the anticipated advantageous performance of diamond kinoform refractive lenses for synchrotron X-ray radiation studies, this report focuses on progress in designing, nanofabricating and testing of their focusing performance. The method involves using lift-off and plasma etching to reproduce a planar definition of numerically determined kinoform(More)
Micro-fabricated bi-prisms have been used to create an interference pattern from an incident hard X-ray beam, and the intensity of the pattern probed with fluorescence from a 30 nm-thick metal film. Maximum fringe visibility exceeded 0.9 owing to the nano-sized probe and the choice of single-crystal prism material. A full near-field analysis is necessary to(More)
X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle scattering measurements are presented of the dynamics and structure of concentrated suspensions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres dispersed in glycerol, for volume fractions from 3% to 52%. The static structures of the suspensions show essentially hard-sphere behavior, and the short-time(More)
Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and the mechanisms controlling their(More)
As an increasingly important structural-characterization technique, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) has found wide applications for in situ and real-time studies of nanostructures and nanocomposites at surfaces and interfaces. A dedicated beamline has been designed, constructed and optimized at beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source for(More)
—X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is a unique tool to study the dynamical properties in a wide range of materials over a wide spatial and temporal range. XPCS measures the correlated changes in the speckle pattern, produced when a coherent x-ray beam is scattered from a disordered sample, over a time series of area detector images. The technique(More)