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Selection pressure exerted by insects and microorganisms shapes the diversity of plant secondary metabolites. We identified a metabolic pathway for glucosinolates, known insect deterrents, that differs from the pathway activated by chewing insects. This pathway is active in living plant cells, may contribute to glucosinolate turnover, and has been recruited(More)
When Manduca sexta attacks Nicotiana attenuata, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the larvae's oral secretions (OS) are introduced into feeding wounds. These FACs trigger a transcriptional response that is similar to the response induced by insect damage. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of(More)
The spatial distribution of plant defenses within a leaf may be critical in explaining patterns of herbivory. The generalist lepidopteran larvae, Helicoverpa armigera (the cotton bollworm), avoided the midvein and periphery of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves and fed almost exclusively on the inner lamina. This feeding pattern was attributed to(More)
AIMS As a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd) affects microbial and plant metabolic processes, thereby potentially reducing the efficiency of microbe or plant-mediated remediation of Cd-polluted soil. The role of siderophores produced by Streptomyces tendae F4 in the uptake of Cd by bacteria and plant was investigated to gain insight into the influence of(More)
Camalexin represents the main phytoalexin in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The camalexin-deficient phytoalexin deficient 3 (pad3) mutant has been widely used to assess the biological role of camalexin, although the exact substrate of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 71B15 encoded by PAD3 remained elusive. 2-(Indol-3-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylic(More)
Small molecules are defined as low molecular weight organic compounds (typically <1000 Da), which could be either natural or artificial. Because established imaging methods are not able to selectively detect the positions, concentrations and structures of small molecules in biological samples, new methods have been developed. This review summarizes recent(More)
Glucosinolates are biologically active secondary metabolites that display both intra- and interspecific variation in the order Brassicales. Glucosinolate profiles have not been interpreted within a phylogenic framework and little is known regarding the processes that influence the evolution of glucosinolate diversity at a macroevolutionary scale. We have(More)
Intraspecific olfactory signals known as pheromones play important roles in insect mating systems. In the model Drosophila melanogaster, a key part of the pheromone-detecting system has remained enigmatic through many years of research in terms of both its behavioral significance and its activating ligands. Here we show that Or47b-and Or88a-expressing(More)
Gas-phase Fourier-transform infrared spectra allow unambiguous determination of the configuration of the double bonds of long-chain unsaturated compounds bearing RCH=CHR' type bonds. Although the infrared absorption at 970-967 cm-1 has been used previously for the identification of trans bonds, the absorption at 3028-3011 cm-1 is conventionally considered(More)
Terpene synthases are responsible for the large diversity of terpene carbon skeletons found in plants. The unique, carbocationic reaction mechanism of these enzymes can form multiple products from a single prenyl diphosphate substrate. Two maize genes were isolated that encode very similar sesquiterpene synthases, TPS6 and TPS11, which both produce(More)