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To determine the extent to which the visual experience of one eye may influence the refractive development of its fellow eye, we analyzed the data of untreated (UT) eyes of monkeys that received different types of unilateral pattern deprivation. Subjects were 15 juvenile rhesus monkeys, with five monkeys in each of three treatment groups: aphakic eyes with(More)
The influence of anomalous visual experience on the postnatal regulation of axial eye elongation was explored by raising newborn rhesus monkeys under different types of monocular and binocular deprivation and comparing their eye growth pattern with that of age-matched normal monkeys. Monocular manipulations included eyelid suture to eliminate pattern(More)
Current retinal prosthetics are designed to stimulate existing neural circuits in diseased retinas to create a visual signal. However, implantation of retinal prosthetics may create a neurotrophic environment that also leads to improvements in visual function. Possible sources of increased neuroprotective effects on the retina may arise from electrical(More)
The normal postnatal development, the influence of age, and the effects of visual deprivation on the dopamine system in the retina of rhesus monkeys were examined. The lowest level of retinal dopamine was found at birth. By 3-4 weeks of age, the dopamine concentration had more than doubled. This level remained relatively constant in the retinas of older(More)
PURPOSE To study a potential role for muscarinic receptors in the inhibition of deprivation-induced excessive axial elongation and myopia in a monkey model. METHODS The right eyes of 20 newborn rhesus monkeys were occluded with a black contact lens. In seven monkeys each, either atropine or pirenzepine was topically applied daily to the occluded eyes. The(More)
PURPOSE To examine the relationship of ocular components to refraction throughout the adult life span of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). METHODS Cycloplegic retinoscopy, A-scan ultrasonography, slit lamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and keratometry were performed in a cross-sectional study of 111 monkeys, aged 5 to 31 years. Lens thickness(More)
In each of five monkeys, one eye was fitted with a diffuser lens at birth. This lens allowed pattern vision, but also reduced contrast by about 1 log unit. In four out of five monkeys, the treated eyes were shorter and more hyperopic than the untreated fellow eyes. At 25 weeks of age, interocular differences (OD -- OS) of the experimental group were(More)
Neonatal cataract surgery is becoming more common because irreversible amblyopia occurs if an eye receives inadequate inputs during an early sensitive period of visual development. To model conditions for treating congenital monocular cataracts in humans, we have reared rhesus monkeys which underwent unilateral lensectomy as neonates. Post-surgical A-scan(More)
PURPOSE Nob mice share the same mutation in the Nyx gene that is found in humans with complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1). Nob mutant mice were studied to determine whether this defect resulted in myopia, as it does in humans. METHODS Refractive development was measured in unmanipulated wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) and nob mice from 4 to 12(More)
PURPOSE StarGen is an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vector that expresses the photoreceptor-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter (ABCA4) protein that is mutated in Stargardt disease (STGD1), a juvenile macular dystrophy. EIAV vectors are able to efficiently transduce rod and cone photoreceptors in(More)