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PURPOSE To provide baseline measurements on the postnatal changes in refractive error, corneal curvature, and axial elongation of the eyes of normal monkeys. Little is known about the course of normal eye growth from birth to adolescence, particularly how refractive parameters co-vary during development. In animal models of ametropia, usually one eye is(More)
Current retinal prosthetics are designed to stimulate existing neural circuits in diseased retinas to create a visual signal. However, implantation of retinal prosthetics may create a neurotrophic environment that also leads to improvements in visual function. Possible sources of increased neuroprotective effects on the retina may arise from electrical(More)
To determine the extent to which the visual experience of one eye may influence the refractive development of its fellow eye, we analyzed the data of untreated (UT) eyes of monkeys that received different types of unilateral pattern deprivation. Subjects were 15 juvenile rhesus monkeys, with five monkeys in each of three treatment groups: aphakic eyes with(More)
The influence of anomalous visual experience on the postnatal regulation of axial eye elongation was explored by raising newborn rhesus monkeys under different types of monocular and binocular deprivation and comparing their eye growth pattern with that of age-matched normal monkeys. Monocular manipulations included eyelid suture to eliminate pattern(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of continuous light exposure on ocular growth and emmetropization in infant monkeys. METHODS Nine infant rhesus monkeys were reared with the normal vivarium lights on continuously. The 24-hour light cycle was initiated between 1 and 4 weeks of age and maintained for 6 months. The ocular effects of continuous light were(More)
BACKGROUND Early in life, at ages corresponding to the rapid infantile phase of ocular growth in humans, visual feedback can modulate refractive development in monkeys and many other species. To determine if vision-dependent mechanisms can still influence refractive development in primates during the slow juvenile phase of ocular growth, the time period(More)
PURPOSE Nob mice share the same mutation in the Nyx gene that is found in humans with complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1). Nob mutant mice were studied to determine whether this defect resulted in myopia, as it does in humans. METHODS Refractive development was measured in unmanipulated wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) and nob mice from 4 to 12(More)
PURPOSE StarGen is an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vector that expresses the photoreceptor-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter (ABCA4) protein that is mutated in Stargardt disease (STGD1), a juvenile macular dystrophy. EIAV vectors are able to efficiently transduce rod and cone photoreceptors in(More)
The normal postnatal development, the influence of age, and the effects of visual deprivation on the dopamine system in the retina of rhesus monkeys were examined. The lowest level of retinal dopamine was found at birth. By 3-4 weeks of age, the dopamine concentration had more than doubled. This level remained relatively constant in the retinas of older(More)
Immunocytochemical methods were used to examine neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive neurons and fibers in area 17 of rhesus monkeys during the first year of life. NPY-immunoreactive (+) neurons are nonpyramidal cells which are either multipolar, bipolar, or bitufted in shape. They occur most frequently in layer 6 and the subjacent white matter, are sparser(More)