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The skin and its major appendages are prominent target organs and potent sources of key players along the classical hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and even express key steroidogenic enzymes. Therefore, it may have(More)
The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with(More)
The search for more effective drugs for the management of common hair growth disorders remains a top priority, both for clinical dermatology and industry. In this pilot study, we report a pragmatic organotypic assay for basic and applied hair research. The patented technique produces microdroplets, which generate human folliculoid microspheres (HFMs),(More)
The collapse of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I-dependent immune privilege can lead to autoimmune disease or fetal rejection. Pragmatic and instructive models are needed to clarify the as yet obscure controls of MHC class I down-regulation in situ, to dissect the principles of immune privilege generation, maintenance, and collapse as well as(More)
Since mammalian skin expresses the enzymatic apparatus for melatonin synthesis, it may be an extrapineal site of melatonin synthesis. However, evidence is still lacking that this is really the case in situ. Here, we demonstrate melatonin-like immunoreactivity (IR) in the outer root sheath (ORS) of mouse and human hair follicles (HFs), which corresponds to(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon (IFN)-gamma appears to be an important hair cycle modulator in mice. It is unclear whether it has similar hair growth modulatory functions in human hair follicles. OBJECTIVES To study whether IFN-gamma can be exploited to modulate the growth, pigmentation and/or cycling of organ-cultured human anagen scalp hair follicles, as an in(More)
In a field experiment, Pseudomonas cepacia J82rif and J51rif increased sunflower emergence in the presence of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pyrrolnitrin, aminopyrrolnitrin, and monochloroaminopyrrolnitrin were isolated from J82 and identified by using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron impact-mass, UV, and(More)
In this study, it was investigated how estrogens (17-beta-estradiol, E2) affect the estrogen receptor (ER) expression and gene regulation of male versus female human scalp hair follicles in vitro. Anagen VI follicles from frontotemporal scalp skin were microdissected and organ-cultured for up to 9 d in the presence of E2 (1-100 nm). Immunohistochemistry was(More)
The specific enzymes associated with lignin degradation in solid lignocellulosic substrates have not been identified. Therefore, we examined extracts of cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium that were degrading a mechanical pulp of aspen wood. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses of the partially purified protein revealed lignin peroxidase,(More)
The nail apparatus is constantly exposed to environmental damage. It requires effective immune responses to combat infection, while avoiding the loss of nail production and regeneration by autoaggressive immunity. By immunohistology, we define here previously unknown characteristics of the normal human nail immune system (NIS). Compared with other regions(More)