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High amounts of acrylamide in some foods result in an estimated daily mean intake of 50 microg for a western style diet. Animal studies have shown the carcinogenicity of acrylamide upon oral exposure. However, only sparse human toxicokinetic data is available for acrylamide, which is needed for the extrapolation of human cancer risk from animal data. We(More)
Acrylamide, a potential food carcinogen in humans, is biotransformed to the epoxide glycidamide in vivo. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are conjugated with glutathione, possibly via glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. We investigated acrylamide toxicokinetics in 16 healthy volunteers in a four-period(More)
Methyl-coenzyme-M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M [2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonate] and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme contains the nickel porphinoid coenzyme F430 as a prosthetic group. In the active, reduced (red) state, the enzyme displays two characteristic EPR signals,(More)
The reduction of the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M (H-S-CoM) and 7-mercaptoheptanoyl-L-threonine phosphate (H-S-HTP) is a key reaction in the metabolism of methanogenic bacteria. The heterodisulfide reductase catalyzing this step was purified 80-fold to apparent homogeneity from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The native enzyme showed an apparent(More)
Enzymes involved in methane formation from carbon dioxide and dihydrogen in Methanopyrus kandleri require high concentrations (> 1 M) of lyotropic salts such as K2HPO4/KH2PO4 or (NH4)2SO4 for activity and for thermostability. The requirement correlates with high intracellular concentrations of cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG; approximately 1 M) in this(More)
In recent years, ogliopeptides have enjoyed ever increasing interest in two areas: first, approaches to biomimetic enzyme-like activity; and second, as metal-free catalysts for enantioselective transformations of synthetic interest. The discovery and optimization of peptides for these purposes has often used the methodology of combinatorial chemistry.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more(More)
The series of L-Leu 1-20-mers, peptides carrying 1-5 N-terminal Gly residues, and oligomers of (S)-beta(3)-Leu and (1R,2R)-2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid were synthesized on TentaGel S NH(2). Five L-Leu residues were found sufficient to catalyze the Juliá-Colonna epoxidation of chalcone with 96-98% ee. Experiment and molecular modeling suggest that(More)
In 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as solvent, the epoxidation of olefins by hydrogen peroxide is accelerated up to ca. 100 000-fold (relative to that in 1,4-dioxane as solvent). The mechanistic basis of this effect was investigated kinetically and theoretically. The kinetics of the epoxidation of Z-cyclooctene provided evidence that higher-order(More)