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High amounts of acrylamide in some foods result in an estimated daily mean intake of 50 microg for a western style diet. Animal studies have shown the carcinogenicity of acrylamide upon oral exposure. However, only sparse human toxicokinetic data is available for acrylamide, which is needed for the extrapolation of human cancer risk from animal data. We(More)
Acrylamide, a potential food carcinogen in humans, is biotransformed to the epoxide glycidamide in vivo. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are conjugated with glutathione, possibly via glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. We investigated acrylamide toxicokinetics in 16 healthy volunteers in a four-period(More)
Enzymes involved in methane formation from carbon dioxide and dihydrogen in Methanopyrus kandleri require high concentrations (> 1 M) of lyotropic salts such as K2HPO4/KH2PO4 or (NH4)2SO4 for activity and for thermostability. The requirement correlates with high intracellular concentrations of cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG; approximately 1 M) in this(More)
Methanofuran (4-[N-(4,5,7-tricarboxyheptanoyl-gamma-L-glutamyl)-gamma-L- glutamyl)-p-(beta-aminoethyl)phenoxymethyl]-2-(aminomethyl)furan is a coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. The N-formyl derivative is an intermediate in the reduction of CO2 to CH4 and the disproportionation of methanol to CO2 and CH4. Formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase and(More)
Methyl-coenzyme-M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M [2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonate] and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme contains the nickel porphinoid coenzyme F430 as a prosthetic group. In the active, reduced (red) state, the enzyme displays two characteristic EPR signals,(More)
The reduction of the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M (H-S-CoM) and 7-mercaptoheptanoyl-L-threonine phosphate (H-S-HTP) is a key reaction in the metabolism of methanogenic bacteria. The heterodisulfide reductase catalyzing this step was purified 80-fold to apparent homogeneity from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The native enzyme showed an apparent(More)
Methyl-coenzyme-M reductase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (strain Marburg) was purified to a stage where, besides the alpha, beta and gamma subunits, no additional polypeptides were detectable in the preparation. Under appropriate conditions the enzyme was found to catalyze the reduction of methyl-CoM with 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate(More)
In recent years, ogliopeptides have enjoyed ever increasing interest in two areas: first, approaches to biomimetic enzyme-like activity; and second, as metal-free catalysts for enantioselective transformations of synthetic interest. The discovery and optimization of peptides for these purposes has often used the methodology of combinatorial chemistry.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more(More)
Identification of signalling cascades involved in cardiomyogenesis is crucial for optimising the generation of cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells (ES cells) (in vitro). We used a transgenic ES cell lineage expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter (palphaMHC-EGFP) to(More)