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Antibodies to the 68, 160 and 200 kD of the neurofilament triplets were used to study the distribution and organization of neuronal structures in the human choroid. Choroidal axons were observed in the suprachoroid and vascular laminae but absent from the choriocapillary layer. Most axons were situated in the suprachoroid. In this layer, there were(More)
Different morphological types of retinal perivascular astrocytes have been studied in wholemount preparations of rabbit retina. Astrocytes were immunohistochemically demonstrated using glial fibrillary acidic protein monoclonal antibodies (GFAP clone GA-5). Three types of perivascular astrocytes were found. Type I has an ovoid perikaryon which gives rise to(More)
Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by an irreversible decrease in ganglion cells and their axons. Macroglial and microglial cells appear to play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Here, we study the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) in the macroglia,(More)
PURPOSE To analyze the effects of different levels of intraocular pressure (IOP) in the macroglia in ocular hypertension (OHT) and contralateral eyes at 3 weeks after laser photocoagulation and compare these with effects in age-matched control rats. METHODS Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an age-matched control (naive) group and an OHT group.(More)
Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry have been used to study the structural specializations of astrocyte and Müller glia cells in human retinas. The astrocytes and Müller cells contribute to the formation of the internal limiting membrane, the retina, the blood vessel glial limiting membranes and the glial sheaths of the ganglion cells. Two types of(More)
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy, a leading cause of blindness, can progress despite control of intraocular pressure - currently the main risk factor and target for treatment. Glaucoma progression shares mechanisms with neurodegenerative disease, including microglia activation. In the present model of ocular hypertension (OHT), we have recently described(More)
In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We(More)
Immunocytochemical localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been used to study astrocyte distribution and morphology in whole mounted human retinas and vertical sections. Two types of astrocytes can be distinguished: elongated astrocytes are located in the nerve fibre layer (NFL); and star-shaped astrocytes are found in the ganglion cell(More)
To determine the presence in the human choroid of substance P (SP)-and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICNs), choroidal whole-mounts were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. An antibody to a component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, neurofilament 200 kDa (NF-200), was combined with antibodies to SP and to(More)
Most studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have focused on the outer retina but little has been done on the involvement of astrocytes in this disease. We examined normal (young and old) and pathological (AMD) human retinas for the presence of changes in morphology and distribution of the astrocytes. Electron microscopy and inmunohistochemical(More)