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A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence: definition/classification system; epidemiology; diagnostic(More)
Pathologies of cerebral circulation are one of the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity among the populations of Western countries. The incidence of ischemic events presumed to have a cardioembolic origin varies from 13% to 34% in the largest international multi-center studies. However, some authors have reported an incidence of general(More)
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been described in chronic heart failure (HF) as marker of tubular damage and renal dysfunction; however, less data are available in patients with acute HF. Because of high rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) development, we aimed to investigate the role of NGAL in predicting early AKI development; second,(More)
Oxidized-low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and the specific receptor LOX-1 are involved in atherogenesis and atherothrombosis. LOX-1 downregulation is associated with the anti-platelet action of atorvastatin. 3'UTR/T LOX-1 polymorphism has been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. This study was planned to determine whether LOX-1(More)
BACKGROUND B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) determination is routinely used to evaluate the severity of congestive heart failure, a possible consequence of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD originates from vascular atherosclerotic processes and is stimulated by inflammatory events, which may also be triggered by chronic bacterial infections. AIM To(More)
Hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce cardiovascular events by cholesterol lowering as well as by non-lipid related actions. Among them, the modulation of platelet activity could play a relevant role in vascular protection. Furthermore withdrawal of statins has been associated with increased cardiovascular event rate. The aim of(More)
For patients presenting with acute dyspnea, an incorrect diagnosis could increase the mortality risk. When used in the evaluation of patients with acute symptoms, brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and NT-proBNP, respectively) testing is highly sensitive for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute or chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is now recognized as being a common finding in CHF and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. However, it is uncertain whether the anemia is actually causing the worse prognosis or is merely a marker of more severe cardiac disease. Previous intervention studies with subcutaneous (s.c.) beta-EPO in combination with iron have(More)