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Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) have been demonstrated as the cause of gelastic epilepsy, both by intracranial electrodes and functional imaging. The neocortex becomes secondarily involved, through poorly characterized propagation pathways. The detailed dynamics of seizure spread have not yet been demonstrated, owing to the limited spatial-temporal resolution(More)
PURPOSE The epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) has typical clinical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral manifestations refractory to drug therapy and with unfavorable evolution. It is well known that only sessile lesions produce epilepsy, but no correlation has been established between the different types of sessile hamartomas and the(More)
For the past few years, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of several pathologies has been investigated. Knowledge of the current density distribution is an important factor in optimizing such applications of tDCS. We use the finite element method to compare three different models in tDCS, where the stimulation(More)
OBJECTIVE Gelastic seizures are a frequent and well established manifestation of the epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. The scalp EEG recordings very seldom demonstrate clear spike activity and the information about the ictal epilepsy dynamics is limited. In this work, we try to isolate epileptic rhythms in gelastic seizures and study their(More)
OBJECTIVE The Panayiotopoulos type of idiopathic occipital epilepsy has peculiar and easily recognizable ictal symptoms, which are associated with complex and variable spike activity over the posterior scalp areas. These characteristics of spikes have prevented localization of the particular brain regions originating clinical manifestations. We studied(More)
We aimed to investigate the feasibility of an experimental system for simultaneous transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) and EEG recording in human epilepsy. We report tolerability of this system in a cross-over controlled trial with 15 healthy subjects and preliminary effects of its use, testing repeated tDCS sessions, in two patients with drug-refractory(More)
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI offers the possibility of non-invasively studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of epileptic activity propagation from the focus towards an extended brain network, through the identification of the haemodynamic correlates of ictal electrical discharges. In epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), seizures are known to(More)
OBJECTIVE Early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) is a common and easily recognizable epilepsy. Interictal EEG spike activity is often multifocal but most frequently localized in the occipital lobes. The origin and clinical significance of the extra-occipital spikes remain poorly understood. METHODS Three patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE The epilepsies associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are very often refractory to medical therapy. Surgery for epilepsy is an effective alternative when the critical link between the localization of seizure onset in the scalp and a particular cortical tuber can be established. In this study we perform analysis of ictal and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to demonstrate the dynamics and structure of the epileptic network and provide a tentative correlation with the clinical manifestations, in a symptomatic case of Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS). METHODS JP, 5-year-old girl. Gestational period and developmental milestones were normal. At age 4 years, two episodes of(More)