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For the past few years, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of several pathologies has been investigated. Knowledge of the current density distribution is an important factor in optimizing such applications of tDCS. We use the finite element method to compare three different models in tDCS, where the stimulation(More)
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) have been demonstrated as the cause of gelastic epilepsy, both by intracranial electrodes and functional imaging. The neocortex becomes secondarily involved, through poorly characterized propagation pathways. The detailed dynamics of seizure spread have not yet been demonstrated, owing to the limited spatial-temporal resolution(More)
PURPOSE The epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) has typical clinical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral manifestations refractory to drug therapy and with unfavorable evolution. It is well known that only sessile lesions produce epilepsy, but no correlation has been established between the different types of sessile hamartomas and the(More)
We aimed to investigate the feasibility of an experimental system for simultaneous transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) and EEG recording in human epilepsy. We report tolerability of this system in a cross-over controlled trial with 15 healthy subjects and preliminary effects of its use, testing repeated tDCS sessions, in two patients with drug-refractory(More)
OBJECTIVE Gelastic seizures are a frequent and well established manifestation of the epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. The scalp EEG recordings very seldom demonstrate clear spike activity and the information about the ictal epilepsy dynamics is limited. In this work, we try to isolate epileptic rhythms in gelastic seizures and study their(More)
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI offers the possibility of non-invasively studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of epileptic activity propagation from the focus towards an extended brain network, through the identification of the haemodynamic correlates of ictal electrical discharges. In epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), seizures are known to(More)
OBJECTIVE The Panayiotopoulos type of idiopathic occipital epilepsy has peculiar and easily recognizable ictal symptoms, which are associated with complex and variable spike activity over the posterior scalp areas. These characteristics of spikes have prevented localization of the particular brain regions originating clinical manifestations. We studied(More)
OBJECTIVE The epilepsy associated with the hypothalamic hamartomas constitutes a syndrome with peculiar seizures, usually refractory to medical therapy, mild cognitive delay, behavioural problems and multifocal spike activity in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG). The cortical origin of spikes has been widely assumed but not specifically demonstrated. (More)
Automatic recognition of words from letter strings is a critical processing step in reading that is lateralized to the left-hemisphere middle fusiform gyrus in the so-called Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). Surgical lesions in this location can lead to irreversible alexia. Very early left hemispheric lesions can lead to transfer of the VWFA to the nondominant(More)
OBJECTIVE Early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) is a common and easily recognizable epilepsy. Interictal EEG spike activity is often multifocal but most frequently localized in the occipital lobes. The origin and clinical significance of the extra-occipital spikes remain poorly understood. METHODS Three patients with(More)