Alberto J Espay

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Experimental models of Parkinson's disease have demonstrated abnormal synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal system, possibly related to the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). We tested the hypothesis that LID in Parkinson's disease is associated with aberrant plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). We employed the paired associative(More)
BACKGROUND Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiological, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. We aimed to(More)
Bradykinesia encompasses slowness, decreased movement amplitude, and dysrhythmia. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-based bradykinesia-related items require that clinicians condense abnormalities in speed, amplitude, fatiguing, hesitations, and arrests into a single score. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a modified(More)
Bradykinesia, characterized by slowness and decreased amplitude of movement, is often considered the most important deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current clinical rating of bradykinesia in PD, based on the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III), does not individually weigh the impairments in speed and amplitude(More)
OBJECTIVE The pathophysiology of psychogenic dystonia has not been examined, but a growing body of literature suggests that abnormal sensory input from repetitive movements can lead to plastic cortical changes. Reduced cortical and spinal inhibition is well documented in organic dystonia. We tested the hypothesis that aberrant sensory input associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia at the time of acute ischemic stroke has been linked to worse outcome in both human and animal studies. OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence and severity of hyperglycemia on hospital admission among acute ischemic stroke patients, to examine the independent relationship of admission hyperglycemia to all-cause mortality, and to(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the phenotype of levodopa-induced "on" freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS We present a diagnostic approach to separate "on" FOG (deterioration during the "on state") from other FOG forms. Four patients with PD with suspected "on" FOG were examined in the "off state" (>12 hours after last medication intake), "on(More)
Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with long-term oral levodopa treatment and linked to pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. L-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J), which reduces L-dopa-plasma-level fluctuations and can translate to reduced motor(More)
BACKGROUND Mirror movements (MM) are not widely appreciated in parkinsonism and no report has evaluated this clinical sign in detail. OBJECTIVES To define the parkinsonian clinical features associated with MM in patients with early, asymmetric parkinsonism. METHODS Twenty seven patients with early Parkinson's disease were evaluated using a standardised(More)
Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a disabling movement disorder associated with postural and gait impairment in the elderly. Medical therapy often yields insufficient benefit. We report the clinical and electrophysiological data on two patients with medication-refractory OT treated with deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (Vim DBS).(More)