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It is known that pain perception can be altered by mood, attention and cognition, or by direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex, but we know little of the neural mechanisms underlying the cortical modulation of pain. One of the few cortical areas consistently activated by painful stimuli is the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) where, as in other(More)
The rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) has recently been identified as a site where local changes in GABA and dopamine levels, or application of opioids, can alter nociceptive thresholds in awake animals. The connections of the cortex dorsal to the rhinal fissure that includes the RAIC have been examined previously, with emphasis on visceral and(More)
The expression of voltage-gated potassium channels belonging to the Kv3 family has been studied in the sensori-motor cortex of rats exposed to alcohol inhalation during the first postnatal week (P2-P6). The study was carried out using comparative RT-PCR. At P9, a significant reduction of the expression of Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 subunits occurred in alcohol-treated(More)
The fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a known cause of mental retardation in humans. Studies based on experimental models of FAS have demonstrated deep alterations of the cerebral cortex. Here, the anatomical organization of cortical interneurons immunoreactive for different calcium binding proteins has been studied in adult rats exposed to alcohol inhalation(More)
Projections from the claustrum (Cl) and the thalamic anterior intralaminar nuclei (AIN) to different representations within the primary somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) areas were studied using the multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing technique. The injected cortical regions were identified electrophysiologically. Retrograde labeling in Cl reveals two(More)
Increasing evidence shows that the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) is important in the modulation of nociception in humans and rats and that dopamine and GABA appear to be key neurotransmitters in the function of this cortical region. Here we use immunocytochemistry and path tracing to examine the relationship between dopamine and GABA related(More)
Continuous high-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidum internum (GPi) is an accepted treatment for patients with primary dystonia. In a series of 18 consecutive dystonia cases that were successfully treated by bilateral GPi stimulation, 1 patient had an adverse event involving the downward migration of the electrodes. He developed remarkable(More)
The axon regeneration following a peripheral nerve injury often fails to restore a complete functional recovery. One of the causes of this unsatisfactory result has been attributed to regrowth of regenerating fibers to inappropriate peripheral targets. The accuracy of reinnervation by axons regenerating across a 10-mm gap within an impermeable chamber has(More)
The anatomical organization of projections from the microgyric cortex to the contralateral hemisphere through the corpus callosum has been studied in the rat. Microgyria was induced on the first postnatal day by a freezing injury. Once adult, animals received injections of horseradish peroxidase in the cortex contralateral to the lesion. Callosally(More)
The crossed thalamo-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of the mouse are drawn using the tracer wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. After injections in the frontal cortex of the right hemisphere cells labeled retrogradely and axons labeled anterogradely are observed in the thalamus ipsilateral and contralateral to the cortical injections.(More)