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It is known that pain perception can be altered by mood, attention and cognition, or by direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex, but we know little of the neural mechanisms underlying the cortical modulation of pain. One of the few cortical areas consistently activated by painful stimuli is the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) where, as in other(More)
The rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) has recently been identified as a site where local changes in GABA and dopamine levels, or application of opioids, can alter nociceptive thresholds in awake animals. The connections of the cortex dorsal to the rhinal fissure that includes the RAIC have been examined previously, with emphasis on visceral and(More)
The crossed thalamo-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of the mouse are drawn using the tracer wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. After injections in the frontal cortex of the right hemisphere cells labeled retrogradely and axons labeled anterogradely are observed in the thalamus ipsilateral and contralateral to the cortical injections.(More)
The fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a known cause of mental retardation in humans. Studies based on experimental models of FAS have demonstrated deep alterations of the cerebral cortex. Here, the anatomical organization of cortical interneurons immunoreactive for different calcium binding proteins has been studied in adult rats exposed to alcohol inhalation(More)
The expression of voltage-gated potassium channels belonging to the Kv3 family has been studied in the sensori-motor cortex of rats exposed to alcohol inhalation during the first postnatal week (P2-P6). The study was carried out using comparative RT-PCR. At P9, a significant reduction of the expression of Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 subunits occurred in alcohol-treated(More)
Projections from the claustrum (Cl) and the thalamic anterior intralaminar nuclei (AIN) to different representations within the primary somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) areas were studied using the multiple retrograde fluorescent tracing technique. The injected cortical regions were identified electrophysiologically. Retrograde labeling in Cl reveals two(More)
Increasing evidence shows that the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) is important in the modulation of nociception in humans and rats and that dopamine and GABA appear to be key neurotransmitters in the function of this cortical region. Here we use immunocytochemistry and path tracing to examine the relationship between dopamine and GABA related(More)
The mutant mdx mice which lack the protein dystrophin are an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We studied the organization of the cortico-spinal (CS) system in mdx mice using the horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing technique. Tracer injections were placed in the cervical spinal cord of mutant and control mice. The tangential and radial(More)
Continuous high-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidum internum (GPi) is an accepted treatment for patients with primary dystonia. In a series of 18 consecutive dystonia cases that were successfully treated by bilateral GPi stimulation, 1 patient had an adverse event involving the downward migration of the electrodes. He developed remarkable(More)
The fetal alcohol syndrome is a clinical condition that affects newborns from alcoholic mothers. It is not clear, however, whether ethanol consumption during gestation can affect liver functions of fetuses and newborns. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of ethanol administration on body weight, liver energy level, and antioxidant status of(More)