Alberto Gianella

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OBJECTIVE Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America. METHODS Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13 600 FCSW were conducted in nine countries of South America during the years 1999-2002. Participants were recruited in brothels, massage parlours,(More)
BACKGROUND Chagas disease, caused by the flagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects 8-10 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms that underlie the development of complications of chronic Chagas disease, characterized primarily by pathology of the heart and digestive system, are not currently understood. To identify possible host genetic factors(More)
Surveillance for HIV infection among people at increased risk was conducted in five countries in South America. Seroprevalence studies were conducted in more than 36,000 people in Ecuador, Peru, Boliva, Uruguay, and Argentina, along with genetic analysis of the HIV-1 strains. In all countries, the prevalence of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men (MSM)(More)
HIV cross-sectional studies were conducted among high-risk populations in 9 countries of South America. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening and Western blot confirmatory testing were performed, and env heteroduplex mobility assay genotyping and DNA sequencing were performed on a subset of HIV-positive subjects. HIV prevalences were highest among men(More)
BACKGROUND Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for(More)
BACKGROUND The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU): Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon) from Bolivia were(More)
This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of and risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) in Bolivia, and to study the performance of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System risk index in a developing country. DESIGN A prospective study with patient follow-up until the 30th postoperative day. SETTING A general surgical ward of a(More)
Two suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases from Bolivia occurred in May and July 2000 and were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-ANDES using N-Andes recombinant antigen serology. Clot RNAs from the two patients were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. We describe(More)
In August 2002, two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) were confirmed in Mineros and Concepcion, within the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia. Extensive alteration of the native ecosystem, from dense forest to pasture or sugarcane, had occurred in both regions. An ecologic assessment of reservoir species associated with the human disease identified(More)