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The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilins 1 and 2 are genetically linked to the development of familial Alzheimer disease. APP is a single-pass transmembrane protein and precursor of fibrillar and toxic amyloid-beta peptides, which are considered responsible for Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. Presenilins are multipass membrane proteins,(More)
Tau is a multifunctional protein detected in different cellular compartments in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. When hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in atrophic neurons, tau is considered the culprit for neuronal death in familial and sporadic tauopathies. With regards to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, it is not yet established whether entangled(More)
We propose a maximum a posteriori image restoration approach to 3D confocal microscopy. The image field is suitably modeled as a Markov random field, resulting in a Gibbs distributed image. A fuzzy-logic-based potential is employed in the Gibbs prior. Unlike other potentials, the fuzzy potential distinguishes intensity variation due to genuine edges and(More)
The small GTPases, Rab5 and Rac, are essential for endocytosis and actin remodeling, respectively. Coordination of these processes is critical to achieve spatial restriction of intracellular signaling, which is essential for a variety of polarized functions. Here, we show that clathrin- and Rab5-mediated endocytosis are required for the activation of Rac(More)
Even though brain represents only 2-3% of the body weight, it consumes 20% of total body oxygen, and 25% of total body glucose. This sounds surprising, in that mitochondrial density in brain is low, while mitochondria are thought to be the sole site of aerobic energy supply. These data would suggest that structures other than mitochondria are involved in(More)
Glial subcellular re-sealed particles (referred to as gliosomes here) were purified from rat cerebral cortex and investigated for their ability to release glutamate. Confocal microscopy showed that the glia-specific proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100, but not the neuronal proteins 95-kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95),(More)
It is widely accepted that glycine transporters of the GLYT1 type are situated on astrocytes whereas GLYT2 are present on glycinergic neuronal terminals where they mediate glycine uptake. We here used purified preparations of mouse spinal cord nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and of astrocyte-derived subcellular particles (gliosomes) to characterize(More)
Light-sheet microscopy is a useful tool for performing biological investigations of thick samples and it has recently been demonstrated that it can also act as a suitable architecture for super-resolution imaging of thick biological samples by means of individual molecule localization. However, imaging in depth is still limited since it suffers from a(More)
The effects of mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor activation on the depolarization-evoked release of [3H]d-aspartate ([3H]D-ASP) from mouse cortical synaptosomes were investigated. The mGlu1/5 receptor agonist 3,5-DHPG (0.1-100microM) potentiated the K+(12mM)-evoked [3H]D-ASP overflow. The potentiation occurred in a concentration-dependent manner showing a biphasic(More)