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Aging is believed to be a nonadaptive process that escapes the force of natural selection. Here, we challenge this dogma by showing that yeast laboratory strains and strains isolated from grapes undergo an age- and pH-dependent death with features of mammalian programmed cell death (apoptosis). After 90-99% of the population dies, a small mutant(More)
The small GTPases, Rab5 and Rac, are essential for endocytosis and actin remodeling, respectively. Coordination of these processes is critical to achieve spatial restriction of intracellular signaling, which is essential for a variety of polarized functions. Here, we show that clathrin- and Rab5-mediated endocytosis are required for the activation of Rac(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilins 1 and 2 are genetically linked to the development of familial Alzheimer disease. APP is a single-pass transmembrane protein and precursor of fibrillar and toxic amyloid-beta peptides, which are considered responsible for Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. Presenilins are multipass membrane proteins,(More)
Glial subcellular re-sealed particles (referred to as gliosomes here) were purified from rat cerebral cortex and investigated for their ability to release glutamate. Confocal microscopy showed that the glia-specific proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100, but not the neuronal proteins 95-kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95),(More)
Tau is a multifunctional protein detected in different cellular compartments in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. When hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in atrophic neurons, tau is considered the culprit for neuronal death in familial and sporadic tauopathies. With regards to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, it is not yet established whether entangled(More)
We propose a maximum a posteriori image restoration approach to 3D confocal microscopy. The image field is suitably modeled as a Markov random field, resulting in a Gibbs distributed image. A fuzzy-logic-based potential is employed in the Gibbs prior. Unlike other potentials, the fuzzy potential distinguishes intensity variation due to genuine edges and(More)
We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) super-resolution live-cell imaging through thick specimens (50-150 μm), by coupling far-field individual molecule localization with selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The improved signal-to-noise ratio of selective plane illumination allows nanometric localization of single molecules in thick scattering(More)
Even though brain represents only 2-3% of the body weight, it consumes 20% of total body oxygen, and 25% of total body glucose. This sounds surprising, in that mitochondrial density in brain is low, while mitochondria are thought to be the sole site of aerobic energy supply. These data would suggest that structures other than mitochondria are involved in(More)
Methods based on single-molecule localization and photophysics have brought nanoscale imaging with visible light into reach. This has enabled single-particle tracking applications for studying the dynamics of molecules and nanoparticles and contributed to the recent revolution in super-resolution localization microscopy techniques. Crucial to the(More)