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T cells infiltrating tumors have a decreased expression of signal transduction proteins, a diminished ability to proliferate, and a decreased production of cytokines. The mechanisms causing these changes have remained unclear. We demonstrated recently that peritoneal macrophages stimulated with interleukin 4 + interleukin 13 produce arginase I, which(More)
The C-terminus of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein is polymorphic, bearing different EPIYA sequences (EPIYA-A, B, C or D), and one or more CagA multimerization (CM) motifs. The number of EPIYA-C motifs is associated with precancerous lesions and gastric cancer (GC). The relationship between EPIYA, CM motifs and gastric lesions was examined in H.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis has been linked to the microbial oncoprotein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Spermine oxidase (SMO) metabolizes the polyamine spermine into spermidine and generates H(2)O(2), which causes apoptosis and DNA damage. We determined if pathogenic effects of CagA are attributable to SMO. (More)
BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori infection has protean effects on gene expression in the host gastric mucosa, which have been investigated by gene chip analysis in vitro. In this study the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression in the gastric antral mucosa in patients were examined. METHODS One gastric antral biopsy was obtained from a total(More)
Transition metals are necessary for all forms of life including microorganisms, evidenced by the fact that 30% of all proteins are predicted to interact with a metal cofactor. Through a process termed nutritional immunity, the host actively sequesters essential nutrient metals away from invading pathogenic bacteria. Neutrophils participate in this process(More)
Container vessel stowage planning is a hard combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. We have developed an approach that often is able to generate near-optimal plans for large container vessels within a few minutes. It decomposes the problem into a master planning phase that distributes the containers to bay(More)
During infectious processes, antimicrobial proteins are produced by both epithelial cells and innate immune cells. Some of these antimicrobial molecules function by targeting transition metals and sequestering these metals in a process referred to as "nutritional immunity." This chelation strategy ultimately starves invading pathogens, limiting their growth(More)
Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and(More)
BACKGROUND cagA-positive and vacA s1 and m1 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (GC). We determined these genotypes using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens harvested from infected individuals and compared genotype distributions in two Colombian populations residing in geographic regions with a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The Helicobacter pylori toxin vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) promotes gastric colonization, and its presence (VacA(+)) is associated with more-severe disease. The exact mechanisms by which VacA contributes to infection are unclear. We previously found that limited exposure to VacA induces autophagy of gastric cells, which eliminates the(More)