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AIM The aim of this article was to study the results of two different types of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) and kyphoplasty (KPs) to osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). METHODS It was prospectively analyzed a series of 47 PVs from January 2003 to February 2008, and a consecutive series 30 KPs from March 2008 to January 2010, performed for patients(More)
We construct a Heegaard diagram of genus three for the real projective 3-space, which has no waves and pairs of complementary handles. The first example was given by Im and Kim but our diagram has smaller complexity. Furthermore the proof presented here is quite different to that of the quoted authors, and permits also to obtain a simple alternative proof(More)
We prove that each dosed connected 3-manifold admits particular crystallizations with nice properties. As a consequence all 3-manifolds can be represented by a positive integer b and a fixed-point-free involutory permutation on Z b x Z 6. Other 3-manifold representations are also obtained. Finally, a family of dosed connected 3-manifolds is studied. 1.(More)