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In this study a comparative analysis of iron molecules during aging was performed in locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and related disorders. LC and SN neurons, especially the SN pars compacta, degenerate in PD and other forms of parkinsonism. Iron and its major molecular forms, such as ferritin and(More)
Neuronal pigments of melanic type were identified in the putamen, cortex, cerebellum, and other major regions of human brain. These pigments consist of granules 30 nm in size, contained in organelles together with lipid droplets, and they accumulate in aging, reaching concentrations as high as 1.5-2.6 microg/mg tissue in major brain regions. These pigments,(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a progressive loss of neuromelanin (NM)-containing dopamine neurons in substantia nigra (SN) which is associated with microgliosis and presence of extracellular NM. Herein, we have investigated the interplay between microglia and human NM on the degeneration of SN dopaminergic neurons. Although NM particles are(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine neurons containing neuromelanin selectively degenerate. Neuromelanin binds iron and accumulates in aging. Iron accumulates in reactive form during aging, PD, and is involved in neurodegeneration. It is not clear how the interaction of neuromelanin and iron can be protective or toxic by modulating redox processes. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The role of mild hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cerebral ischemia may depend on stroke subtype. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a prospective case-control study of a group of patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD), a group of patients with atherothrombotic stroke (non-CAD), and a group of control(More)
In many parkinsonian syndromes, neuromelanin (NM)-containing dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are selectively targeted by the noxius pathogens. Studies of the constitutional and functional features of human NM allow the formulation of a logical hypothesis on its role in parkinsonian syndromes. In the early stages, NM synthesis and(More)
The amyloid cascade hypothesis suggests that amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolytic processing is a key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The enzymes beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) play an important role in APP proteolysis. We measured by real time quantitative polymerase(More)
BACKGROUND The cancer transcriptome is difficult to explore due to the heterogeneity of quantitative and qualitative changes in gene expression linked to the disease status. An increasing number of "unconventional" transcripts, such as novel isoforms, non-coding RNAs, somatic gene fusions and deletions have been associated with the tumoral state. Massively(More)
Recent biological studies indicate the importance of anterior-pharynx defective-1 (APH-1) proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. We scanned APH-1 genes for the presence of sequence variations by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed their distribution in an Italian sample of 113 AD patients and 132 controls. We found six(More)
Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) are the prominent lesions in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. NFT are mainly composed of an abnormally phosphorylated form of tau protein, which has lost its function to bind microtubules and promote their assembly. Tau hyperphosphorylation critically decreases tau function and precedes(More)