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The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. It is hypothesized that some ERVs are used by the host as restriction factors to block the infection of pathogenic retroviruses. Indeed, some ERVs efficiently interfere with the replication of related(More)
In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion(More)
Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the etiological agent of a contagious lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). Expression of the JSRV envelope protein (Env) is sufficient to transform immortalized and primary fibroblasts, but the precise mechanisms of this process are not known. The cellular receptor for JSRV is(More)
BACKGROUND Mycoplasmas are the simplest bacteria capable of autonomous replication. Their evolution proceeded from gram-positive bacteria, with the loss of many biosynthetic pathways and of the cell wall. In this work, the liposoluble protein complement of Mycoplasma agalactiae, a minimal bacterial pathogen causing mastitis, polyarthritis,(More)
other federal statutes and regulations relating to animals and experiments involving animals and adheres to principles stated in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NRC Publication, 1996 edition. The spread of Q fever from animals to man: the natural history of a rickettsial disease. To the Editor: Anaplasma phago-cytophilum (formerly(More)
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in(More)
Avipoxvirus (APV) infections have been observed in a wide variety of wild, captive and domestic avian hosts, recently including a range of island endemic and endangered species. However, not enough is known about genome diversity and phylogenetic relationships of APVs, as well as their host-range specificity. A wild stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) was(More)
Rickettsia aeschlimannii is an emerging tick-borne pathogen of the spotted fever group Rickettsiae with considerable impact on both human and animal health. This study reports the molecular detection and groEL characterization of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected from birds and ruminants in a typical Mediterranean environment. Phylogeny of R.(More)
Two novel bovine papillomavirus type 7 (BPV-7) variants have been identified in teat cutaneous papillomas affecting dairy cows in northern Italy. The entire genome sequences of two BPV-7 Italian variants showed major sequence differences in the long control region (LCR) and in the L2 gene compared to the Japanese reference strain. In order to define the(More)