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Although genetic susceptibility explains the clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases within families and the sharp decline in risk with increasing genetic distance, it cannot fully explain the geographic variations in MS frequency and the changes in risk that occur with migration. Epidemiological data provide some support for the "hygiene hypothesis,"(More)
BACKGROUND Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake increases plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations; therefore, intake should be reduced to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, require substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance. OBJECTIVE We investigated associations between energy intake from(More)
T rans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Fig. 1), are formed during the partial hydro-genation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semi-solid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. From the perspective of the food industry, partially(More)
CONTEXT Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the temporal relationship remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether antibodies to EBV are elevated before the onset of MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nested case-control study conducted among more than 3 million US(More)
The primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], is associated with multiple medical outcomes, including rickets, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 4501 persons of European ancestry drawn from five cohorts, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene(More)
BACKGROUND Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk of coronary heart disease. METHODS We analyzed the original data(More)
Previous epidemiologic studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between fat intakes and risk of Parkinson's disease. The authors investigated these associations in two large, prospective US cohorts. They documented 191 incident cases of Parkinson's disease in men (1986-1998) and 168 in women (1980-1998) during the follow-up.(More)
OBJECTIVE Air pollution contains many toxicants known to affect neurological function and to have effects on the fetus in utero. Recent studies have reported associations between perinatal exposure to air pollutants and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to air pollutants is associated with ASD,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies are elevated in blood specimens collected up to 30 years prior to onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Individuals with MS were identified among members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan who participated in the multiphasic examinations(More)
BACKGROUND Men who regularly consume caffeinated drinks have a lower risk of PD than do nondrinkers, but this relation has not been found in women. Because this sex difference could be due to hormonal effects, the authors examined prospectively the risk of PD according to use of postmenopausal hormones and caffeine intake among participants in the Nurses'(More)