Alberto A Ascherio

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The primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], is associated with multiple medical outcomes, including rickets, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 4501 persons of European ancestry drawn from five cohorts, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene(More)
BACKGROUND Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake increases plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations; therefore, intake should be reduced to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, require substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance. OBJECTIVE We investigated associations between energy intake from(More)
From the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health — all in Boston (D.M., A.A., M.J.S., W.C.W.); and the Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, and Wageningen Center for Food Sciences — both in(More)
CONTEXT Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that high levels of vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, may decrease the risk of multiple sclerosis. There are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE To examine whether levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
Although genetic susceptibility explains the clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases within families and the sharp decline in risk with increasing genetic distance, it cannot fully explain the geographic variations in MS frequency and the changes in risk that occur with migration. Epidemiological data provide some support for the "hygiene hypothesis,"(More)
CONTEXT Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the temporal relationship remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether antibodies to EBV are elevated before the onset of MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nested case-control study conducted among more than 3 million US(More)
BACKGROUND Men who regularly consume caffeinated drinks have a lower risk of PD than do nondrinkers, but this relation has not been found in women. Because this sex difference could be due to hormonal effects, the authors examined prospectively the risk of PD according to use of postmenopausal hormones and caffeine intake among participants in the Nurses'(More)
OBJECTIVE Air pollution contains many toxicants known to affect neurological function and to have effects on the fetus in utero. Recent studies have reported associations between perinatal exposure to air pollutants and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to air pollutants is associated with ASD,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies are elevated in blood specimens collected up to 30 years prior to onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Individuals with MS were identified among members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan who participated in the multiphasic examinations(More)
BACKGROUND Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but n-6 PUFAs may compete with n-3 PUFA metabolism and attenuate benefits. Additionally, seafood-based, long-chain n-3 PUFAs may modify the effects of plant-based, intermediate-chain n-3 PUFAs. However, the interactions of these PUFAs in relation to(More)