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Virally encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been discovered in herpesviruses. However, their biological roles are mostly unknown. We developed an algorithm for the prediction of miRNA targets and applied it to human cytomegalovirus miRNAs, resulting in the identification of the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain B (MICB) gene as a(More)
The tryptophan residues of P nerve growth factor (J3NGF) were modified by reaction with varying concentrations of N-bromosuccinimide. Analysis of the oxidized derivatives by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, before and after reduction or oxidation of disulfide bonds, revealed partial hydrolysis of specific peptide bonds. Analysis of the newly(More)
In order to map the expression of receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF) during brain and cranial ganglia development, iodinated NGF (125I beta NGF) was used as a probe in an autoradiographical analysis performed between embryonic day 3 (E3) and posthatching day 3 (P3) of chicken development. Heavy autoradiographic labelling was observed at the classical(More)
Members of the alpha- and beta-subfamily of herpesviridae encode glycoproteins that specifically bind to the Fc part of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Plasma membrane resident herpesviral Fc receptors seem to prevent virus-specific IgG from activating antibody-dependent effector functions. We show that the mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) molecule fcr-1 promotes a rapid(More)
When single-cell suspensions prepared from embryonic day 8 (E8) chick sensory ganglia are incubated with nerve growth factor (NGF), anti-NGF antiserum, and complement, an NGF-dependent cytotoxic kill of 20 (+/- 3)% of the ganglia cells is observed. This percentage is increased by a factor of two when only the neuronal cells are tested. No kill is observed(More)
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that has been suggested to play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. It binds to a specific membrane receptor denominated uPA receptor (uPAR). uPA activates plasminogen to form plasmin, which participates in tissue degradation and proteolysis. Binding of uPA to its receptor(More)
A mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) gene conferring interferon (IFN) resistance was identified. This gene, M27, encodes a 79-kD protein that selectively binds and down-regulates for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-2, but it has no effect on STAT1 activation and signaling. The absence of pM27 conferred MCMV susceptibility to type I IFNs(More)
Exposure to oxygen deprivation in vitro has been reported to cause drug resistance in CHO cells (Rice et al., 1986; PNAS 83, 5978) and enhancement of experimental metastatic (colonisation) ability of murine tumour cells (Young et al., 1988; PNAS 85, 9533). Both these studies also demonstrated the induction of a subpopulation of cells with excess DNA(More)
Measles virus (MV) infection and vaccination induce long-lasting immunity and neutralizing-antibody responses that are directed against the MV haemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. A new MV genotype, D7, emerged recently in western Germany and rapidly replaced the long-term endemically circulating genotypes C2 and D6. Analysis of the H gene of C2,(More)
Horizontal transmission of cytomegaloviruses (CMV) occurs via prolonged excretion from mucosal surfaces. We used murine CMV (MCMV) infection to investigate the mechanisms of immune control in secretory organs. CD4 T cells were crucial to cease MCMV replication in the salivary gland (SG) via direct secretion of IFNγ that initiated antiviral signaling on(More)