Albert Z. Kapikian

Learn More
Three hundred eleven employees of the National Institutes of Health volunteered to take 1 gm of ascorbic acid or lactose placebo in capsules three times a day for nine months. At the onset of a cold, the volunteers were given an additional 3 gm daily of either a placebo or ascorbic acid. One hundred ninety volunteers completed the study. Dropouts were(More)
A 27-nm particle was observed by immune electron microscopy in an infectious stool filtrate derived from an outbreak in Norwalk, Ohio, of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Both experimentally and naturally infected individuals developed serological evidence of infection; this along with other evidence suggested that the particle was the(More)
Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults, and GII.4 has been the predominant genotype since its first documented occurrence in 1987. This study examined the evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 noroviruses over more than three decades to investigate possible mechanisms by which these viruses have emerged to become(More)
The development and implementation of safe and effective vaccines to prevent the enormous health burden of rotavirus-associated disease is a global public health goal. Human rotaviruses, the major aetiological agents of severe infantile diarrhoea worldwide, display surprisingly diverse and complex serotypic specificities. Ten VP7 serotypes and 7 VP4(More)
Human rotavirus field isolates were characterized by direct sequence analysis of the gene encoding the serotype-specific major neutralization protein (VP7). Single-stranded RNA transcripts were prepared from virus particles obtained directly from stool specimens or after two or three passages in MA-104 cells. Two regions of the gene (nucleotides 307 through(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the fourth gene of symptomatic (Wa, DS-1, P, and VA70) and asymptomatic (M37, 1076, McN13, and ST3) rotaviruses of serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4 was determined by the dideoxy chain termination method. In each strain, the fourth gene, which encodes the outer capsid protein VP3, is 2,359 base pairs in length and has 5'- and(More)
To examine immunity in viral gastroenteritis, we challenged and then rechallenged 12 volunteers with Norwalk agent and evaluated symptoms, jejunal biopsies and serum antibody. With the first challenge, gastroenteritis developed in six volunteers but not in the others. When rechallenged 27 to 42 months later, the six who became ill initially again had(More)
Noroviruses are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. Genotype II.3 is one of the most frequently detected noroviruses associated with sporadic infections. We studied the evolution of the major capsid gene from seven archival GII.3 noroviruses collected during a cross-sectional study at the Children's Hospital in Washington, DC, from 1975(More)
A cohort of 363 rural children in Bilbeis, Egypt, were followed from birth from 1981 to 1983, with twice-weekly home visits made to detect diarrheal illness. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for detection of rotavirus in stools collected during episodes of diarrhea. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea was detected once in 74 children and twice in 12(More)