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Is public R&D spending complementary and thus " additional " to private R&D spending, or does it substitute for and tend to " crowd out " private R&D? Conflicting answers are given to this question. We survey the body of available econometric evidence accumulated over the past 35 years. A framework for analysis of the problem is developed to help organize(More)
for their insightful comments and suggestions. We are also deeply indebted to the many administrators, scientists, managers, and entrepreneurs who agreed to be interviewed. ABSTRACT We present quantitative and qualitative evidence on the productivity of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). Our empirical results suggest that TTO activity is(More)
Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study Abstract We present quantitative and qualitative evidence on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). Our empirical results suggest that TTO activity is characterized by constant(More)
The paper is an exploratory study of science parks in the United States. It models the history of science parks as the diffusion of an innovation that was adopted at a rapid and increasing rate in the early 1980s, and since then at a decreased rate. It models the growth of a science park once established, showing significant effects on growth for the(More)
The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) faces a number of barriers. Among these are the lack of surrogate biomarkers, the exceptional size and duration of clinical trials, difficulties in identifying appropriate populations for clinical trials, and the limitations of monotherapies in addressing such a complex(More)
Association meetings in the session " Government as Venture Capitalist: Evaluating the SBIR Program. " We appreciate the comments and suggestions from participants at that session as well as those from two anonymous referees. The paper is forthcoming in Research Policy. Abstract This paper evaluates public support of private-sector research and development(More)