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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. METHODS We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(More)
In July 2012, more than 30 years after the initial HIV case reports, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug for the prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection. On the basis of compelling safety and efficacy data from pre-exposure pro-phylaxis (PrEP) trials of men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted across four(More)
OBJECTIVE Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) reduced HIV acquisition in the iPrEx trial among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Self-reported sexual risk behavior decreased overall, but may be affected by reporting bias. We evaluated potential risk compensation using biomarkers of sexual(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials are evaluating regimens containing tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for HIV prevention. We determined the baseline prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and the effect of TDF on BMD in men who have sex with men (MSM) in a PrEP trial in San Francisco. METHODS/FINDINGS We evaluated 1) the(More)
OBJECTIVE Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis decreases sexual acquisition of HIV infection. We sought to evaluate the renal safety of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons. DESIGN AND METHODS The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición (iPrEx) study randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men(More)
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a promising experimental approach currently being tested globally. A number of PrEP trials are evaluating the safety and effectiveness of PrEP in men who have sex with men (MSM) and other populations at risk for HIV, and results will be available from this first generation of efficacy trials over the(More)
BACKGROUND Syphilis infection may potentiate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the extent to which HIV acquisition was associated with syphilis infection within an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial and whether emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) modified that association. METHODS The Preexposure Prophylaxis(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have(More)
In this article, we develop a gender-specific crosswalk based on dual-coded Current Population Survey data to bridge the change in the census occupational coding system that occurred in 2000 and use it to provide the first analysis of the trends in occupational segregation by sex for the 1970-2009 period based on a consistent set of occupational codes and(More)