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We propose a model of how humans sense the velocity of moving images. The model exploits constraints provided by human psychophysics, notably that motion-sensing elements appear tuned for two-dimensional spatial frequency, and by the frequency spectrum of a moving image, namely, that its support lies in the plane in which the temporal frequency equals the(More)
For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images.(More)
Many visual displays, such as movies and television, rely on sampling in the time domain. We derive the spatiotemporal-frequency spectra for some simple moving images and illustrate how these spectra are altered by sampling in the time domain. We construct a simple model of the human perceiver that predicts the critical sample rate required to render(More)
Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency,(More)
The ModelFest data set was created to provide a public source of data to test and calibrate models of foveal spatial contrast detection. It consists of contrast thresholds for 43 foveal achromatic contrast stimuli collected from each of 16 observers. We have fit these data with a variety of simple models that include one of several contrast sensitivity(More)
Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often, these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple spatial frequency channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper, we review the several(More)
Many models of visual performance predict image discriminability, the visibility of the difference between a pair of images. We compared the ability of three image discrimination models to predict the detectability of objects embedded in natural backgrounds. The three models were: a multiple channel Cortex transform model with within-channel masking; a(More)
It is now possible to routinely measure the aberrations of the human eye, but there is as yet no established metric that relates aberrations to visual acuity. A number of metrics have been proposed and evaluated, and some perform well on particular sets of evaluation data. But these metrics are not based on a plausible model of the letter acuity task and(More)
Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the(More)