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We report that amino acids 50 to 77 of azurin (p28) preferentially enter the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, ZR-75-1, and T47D through a caveolin-mediated pathway. Although p28 enters p53 wild-type MCF-7 and the isogenic p53 dominant-negative MDD2 breast cancer cell lines, p28 only induces a G(2)-M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.(More)
Azurin, a member of the cupredoxin family of copper containing redox proteins, preferentially penetrates human cancer cells and exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects with no apparent activity on normal cells. Amino acids 50 to 77 (p28) of azurin seem responsible for cellular penetration and at least part of the antiproliferative, proapoptotic(More)
Tamoxifen has been widely used for treatment, and more recently, for the prevention of breast cancer. Since breast carcinomas are composed of heterogeneous populations of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cells, we hypothesized that tamoxifen may suppress tumor growth by differentially affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. ER+ mammary tumors were(More)
Amino acids 50-77 (p28) of azurin, a 128 aa cupredoxin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is essentially responsible for azurin's preferential penetration of cancer cells. We now report that p28 also preferentially penetrates human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), co-localized with caveolin-1 and VEGFR-2, and inhibits VEGF- and bFGF-induced(More)
Previous studies have shown that retinoids and rexinoids can prevent breast cancer in animal models and in women with increased risk of developing the disease. The cellular effects of these vitamin A analogues have been primarily associated with induction of differentiation and inhibition of proliferation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
INTRODUCTION Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal 17-ketosteroid, is a precursor of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol. Studies have shown that DHEA inhibits carcinogenesis in mammary gland and prostate as well as other organs, a process that is not hormone dependent. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of DHEA-mediated inhibition of the(More)
The effect of retinoids on breast cancer has been predominantly studied in vitro, on established cell lines, which in biology differ significantly from primary tumor cells. Little is known on whether early in vitro passages of breast cancer cells (EPBCCs) are differentially sensitive to retinoids and differentially express retinoid acid receptors (RARs) and(More)
We have shown that genistein, a major component of soy, has anti-colon cancer effects in vitro. These effects are attainable at high concentrations that are difficult to achieve in the serum. The purpose of this study was to enhance the activity of genistein against colon cancer cells by coupling it to 17.1A. The monoclonal antibody 17.1A recognizes an(More)
Most studies on cellular senescence (CS) have been performed in vitro by employing cytotoxic agents, irradiation, chromatin and telomerase modulators or by activating certain oncogenes. All these approaches usually lead to DNA damage, gene instability and/or chromatin alterations that primarily affect p53-p21 signaling. Little is known on whether retinoids(More)