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Azurin, a member of the cupredoxin family of copper containing redox proteins, preferentially penetrates human cancer cells and exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects with no apparent activity on normal cells. Amino acids 50 to 77 (p28) of azurin seem responsible for cellular penetration and at least part of the antiproliferative, proapoptotic(More)
INTRODUCTION Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal 17-ketosteroid, is a precursor of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol. Studies have shown that DHEA inhibits carcinogenesis in mammary gland and prostate as well as other organs, a process that is not hormone dependent. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of DHEA-mediated inhibition of the(More)
Previous studies have shown that retinoids and rexinoids can prevent breast cancer in animal models and in women with increased risk of developing the disease. The cellular effects of these vitamin A analogues have been primarily associated with induction of differentiation and inhibition of proliferation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
Most studies on cellular senescence (CS) have been performed in vitro by employing cytotoxic agents, irradiation, chromatin and telomerase modulators or by activating certain oncogenes. All these approaches usually lead to DNA damage, gene instability and/or chromatin alterations that primarily affect p53-p21 signaling. Little is known on whether retinoids(More)
BACKGROUND p27 is a cell cycle suppressor gene, whose protein is a negative regulator of cyclin/cdk complexes. p27 is also a potential target of retinoids in cancer prevention studies. In benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and in most carcinomas, p27(Kip1) is down-regulated, suggesting its potential resistance to retinoids. To test this hypothesis, we(More)
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