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BACKGROUND The widespread use of a second dose of mumps vaccine among U.S. schoolchildren beginning in 1990 was followed by historically low reports of mumps cases. A 2010 elimination goal was established, but in 2006 the largest mumps outbreak in two decades occurred in the United States. METHODS We examined national data on mumps cases reported during(More)
In 2006 the United States experienced the largest nationwide mumps epidemic in 20 years, primarily affecting college dormitory residents. Unexpected elements of the outbreak included very abrupt time course (75% of cases occurred within 90 days), geographic focality (85% of cases occurred in eight rural Midwestern states), rapid upward and downward shift in(More)
OBJECTIVE In January 2008, an intentionally unvaccinated 7-year-old boy who was unknowingly infected with measles returned from Switzerland, resulting in the largest outbreak in San Diego, California, since 1991. We investigated the outbreak with the objective of understanding the effect of intentional undervaccination on measles transmission and its(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the neonate can alter respiratory rates, i.e., lead to episodes of apnea. We show that RSV G glycoprotein reduces respiratory rates associated with the induction of substance P (SP) and G glycoprotein-CX3CR1 interaction, an effect that is inhibited by treatment with anti-G glycoprotein, anti-SP, or anti-CX3CR1(More)
Vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine or RSV G glycoprotein results in enhanced pulmonary disease after live RSV infection. Enhanced pulmonary disease is characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia and is associated with a substantial inflammatory response. We show that the absence of the G glycoprotein or G(More)
Data are presented for diagnoses of HIV infection reported to CDC through December 2012. The HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report is not copyrighted and may be used and copied without permission. Citation of the source is, however, appreciated. Suggested citation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and(More)
The kinetics and magnitude of SP receptor expression was determined for bronchoalveolar leukocyte cell subsets from BALB/c mice in the primary immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV3) infection, and in the secondary immune response to RSV and PIV3 challenge. In both the primary and secondary responses to(More)
Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children(More)
IMPORTANCE To verify the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from the Western hemisphere, the Pan American Health Organization requested each member country to compile a national elimination report. The United States documented the elimination of endemic measles in 2000 and of endemic rubella and CRS in 2004. In(More)
The cellular immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was examined in infants aged 1-21 months who were hospitalized because of RSV infection or non-RSV-related illness. RSV- or control-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined to determine RSV-specific intracellular T helper-1 (Th1) and T helper- 2 (Th2) cytokine(More)