Albert C. Shaw

Learn More
BACKGROUND Vitamin D deficiency is a major risk factor for bone loss and fracture. Although hypovitaminosis D has been detected frequently in elderly and housebound people, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients hospitalized on a general medical service is unknown. METHODS We assessed vitamin D intake, ultraviolet-light exposure, and risk(More)
T cell antigen recognition involves the formation of a structured interface between antigen-presenting and T cells that facilitates the specific transmission of activating and desensitizing stimuli. The molecular machinery that organizes the signaling molecules and controls their disposition in response to activation remains poorly understood. We show here(More)
We evaluated TLR function in primary human dendritic cells (DCs) from 104 young (age 21-30 y) and older (> or =65 y) individuals. We used multicolor flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and found substantial decreases in older compared with young individuals in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and/or IL-12(More)
As we age, the innate immune system becomes dysregulated and is characterized by persistent inflammatory responses that involve multiple immune and non-immune cell types and that vary depending on the cell activation state and tissue context. This ageing-associated basal inflammation, particularly in humans, is thought to be induced by several factors,(More)
The innate immune system is composed of a network of cells including neutrophils, NK and NKT cells, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells that mediate the earliest interactions with pathogens. Age-associated defects are observed in the activation of all of these cell types, linked to compromised signal transduction pathways including the Toll-like(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that are an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Many established, as well as experimental, vaccines incorporate ligands for TLRs, not only to protect against infectious diseases but also in therapeutic immunization against noninfectious diseases, such as cancer. We(More)
The effects of aging on human TLR function remain incompletely understood. We assessed TLR function and expression in peripheral blood monocytes from 159 subjects in 2 age categories, 21-30 and >65 years of age, using a multivariable mixed effect model. Using flow cytometry to assess TLR-induced cytokine production, we observed a substantial, highly(More)
BACKGROUND Innate immunity, including Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated expression of the B7 costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, is critical for vaccine immunity. We examined whether CD80 and CD86 expression vary with aging and predict response to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. METHODS One hundred sixty-two subjects between 21 and 30(More)
Profibrotic cells derived from circulating CD14+ monocytes include fibrocytes and alternatively activated macrophages. These cells are associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, the simultaneous presence of profibrotic cells and their associated mediators in the circulation of(More)
BACKGROUND The role of the immune response in influencing leptospirosis clinical outcomes is not yet well understood. We hypothesized that acute-phase serum cytokine responses may play a role in disease progression, risk for death, and severe pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (SPHS). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We performed a case-control study design to(More)