Albert A. de Graaf

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Escherichia coli grew in a minimal medium on propionate as the sole carbon and energy source. Initially a lag phase of 4–7 days was observed. Cells adapted to propionate still required 1–2 days before growth commenced. Incorporation of (2-13C), (3-13C) or (2H3)propionate into alanine revealed by NMR that propionate was oxidized to pyruvate without(More)
The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels.(More)
In the wild-type of Corynebacterium glutamicum, the specific activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) remained constant at 1.3 U (mg protein)−1 when raising the ammonia (NH4) concentration in the growth medium from 1 to 90 mM. In contrast, the glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities decreased from 1.1 U (mg protein)−1 and 42 mU(More)
The obligately fermentative aerotolerant bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was shown to possess oxidative phosphorylation activity. Increased intracellular ATP levels were observed in aerated starved cell suspension in the presence of ethanol or acetaldehyde. Ethanolconsuming Z. mobilis generated a transmembrane pH gradient. ATP synthesis in starved Z. mobilis(More)
The reasons for the well-known significantly different behaviour of the anaerobic, gram-negative, ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis during growth on fructose (i.e. decreased growth and ethanol yields, increased by-product formation) as compared to that on its second natural substrate, glucose, have remained unexplained. A xylose-fermenting(More)
The bacterium Oenococcus oeni employs the heterolactic fermentation pathway (products lactate, ethanol, CO2) during growth on fructose as a substrate, and the mannitol pathway when using fructose as an electron acceptor. In this study, [U-13C]glucose, [U-13C]fructose, HPLC, NMR spectroscopy, and enzyme analysis were applied to elucidate the use of both(More)
The carbon flux distribution in the central metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum was studied in batch cultures using [1-13C]- and [6-13C]glucose as substrate during exponential growth as well as during overproduction of l-lysine and l-glutamate. Using the 13C NMR data in conjunction with stoichiometric metabolite balances, molar fluxes were quantified(More)
In this paper, research is done to examine the usefulness of ’iterations’ in generated referring expressions (that is, using multiple sentences to form a referring expression (with and/or without feedback from the hearer) as an expression instead of one long sentence, without any pause or breaks). Two experiments have been done, one to examine how humans(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCx) has recently been found to be dispensable as an anaplerotic enzyme for growth and lysine production of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To clarify the role of the glyoxylate cycle as a possible alternative anaplerotic sequence, defined PEPCx- and isocitrate-lyase (ICL)-negative double mutants of C. glutamicum wild-type and(More)
A high-resolution in situ hybridization method is described for localizing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor transcripts in nuclei of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The method is based upon the use of ultra-small gold particles in combination with silver enhancement. The RNA of the EGF-receptor was detected mainly around the nucleoli. After removal(More)