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An intrinsic oscillator, using dopamine and melatonin as antagonist signals, controls rhythmic events in the retina of nonmammals. The purpose of the present work was to localize and characterize a dopamine receptor responsible for the nocturnal inhibition of melatonin synthesis in photoreceptor cells in a mammalian retina. An antibody against the D2(More)
Dopamine is one of the major neurotransmitters in the retina. It is released from amacrine and interplexiform cells into both inner (IPL) and outer (OPL) plexiform layers. Several dopaminergic actions are known to occur through D1 receptors (D1R) but the precise location of these receptors has not been established. An antibody that recognizes the(More)
The retinal neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), elaborated from intrinsic dopaminergic neurons as amacrine and interplexiform cells, is known to modulate several complex functions mediated by D1 and D2 receptors in the vertebrate retina. In this paper, we characterized and localized DA receptors of the D2 family on rod outer segments (ROS) of the rat retina by(More)
The morphology and distribution of dopaminergic interplexiform cells in adult rat and monkey retinas were analyzed to determine any correlation with the function of dopamine in the outer retinal layers. The retinas were processed as whole mounts for tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. There was a network formed by the sclerally directed processes of(More)
The dopamine (DA) innervation, labeled by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in a wholemounted human retina, is described in the avascular area of the fovea. Eleven DA neurons give rise to this innervation, among which five are interplexiform cells, so that the DA innervation consists of two plexuses: one is internal and is formed by the dendrites of(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine if some catecholaminergic amacrine cells of the rat retina use L-DOPA as their neurotransmitter, especially the small (2CA) cells that are immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase but not to dopamine; to understand better the possible existence of serotoninergic cells in the rat retina; and to(More)
The appearance and development of tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells were studied using whole mounts of postnatal rat retinas. The two classes of cells described in the adult retina were observed in the young rat. Small unipolar cells appeared as soon as the day of birth in the superior retina and large stellate cells by postnatal day (PND) 7. By PND(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunolabeled wholemounts and sections of rat and monkey retina were observed at both the light- and electron-microscopic level. Small processes derived from sclerally directed processes of dopaminergic interplexiform cells were observed ascending to the outer nuclear layer where they were distributed between photoreceptor cells. A role(More)
In the retina, tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) antiserum specifically labels intrinsic dopamine (DA)-neurons. In order to clarify the relationship between capillaries and DA-processes already observed by light microscopy, we have performed TH-immunocytochemistry on rat and monkey retinas at the electron microscope level. Close contacts were observed between(More)
A double immunohistochemical labeling technique was developed with two immunoperoxidase reactions performed before and after embedding in epoxy resin using two different chromogens: diaminobenzidine (yellowish brown color) and diaminobenzidine + nickel ammonium sulfate (black color). The two catecholamine enzyme immunoreactivities(More)