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Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are major components of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria with diverse roles in bacterial pathogenesis of animals and plants that include elicitation of host defenses. Little is known about the mechanisms of perception of these molecules by plants and about the associated signal(More)
Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a unique and essential structural part of the bacterial cell wall. PGNs from two contrasting Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria elicited components characteristic of the innate immune system in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as transcription of the defense gene PR1, oxidative burst, medium alkalinization, and formation of callose.(More)
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that displays a remarkably high resistance to antimicrobial peptides. We hypothesize that high resistance to antimicrobial peptides in these bacteria is because of the barrier properties of the outer membrane. Here we report the identification of genes for the biosynthesis of the core oligosaccharide(More)
Novel lipooligosaccharide components were isolated and identified from the lipooligosaccharide fraction of the halophilic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii type strain KMM 3549T. The complete structure was achieved by chemical analysis, 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI mass spectrometry as the following: [carbohydrate formula see text] All(More)
Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggers various defense responses in plants. This MAMP-triggered immunity plays a major role in the plant resistance against various pathogens. To clarify the molecular basis of the specific recognition of chitin oligosaccharides by the rice PRR, CEBiP(More)
Burkholderia cepacia, a Gram-negative bacterium ubiquitous in the environment, is a plant pathogen causing soft rot of onions. This microorganism has recently emerged as a life-threatening multiresistant pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients. An important virulence factor of B. cepacia is the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction. Clinical isolates and(More)
Lipid A is the lipophilic moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), the major components of the external membrane of almost all gram-negative bacteria. It is responsible for the toxicity of LPS and has a heterogeneous structure composed of a bis-phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide backbone that is acylated at the positions 2, 3 of the GlcN I (proximal) and(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms in vertebrates and the only line of defense in invertebrates and plants. Bacterial glyco-conjugates, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan (PGN) from the cell walls of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and(More)
In the presence of a bacteriophage (a bacteria-attacking virus) resistance is clearly beneficial to the bacteria. As expected in such conditions, resistant bacteria emerge rapidly. However, in the absence of the phage, resistant bacteria often display reduced fitness, compared to their sensitive counterparts. The present study explored the fitness cost(More)