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BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS), and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi(More)
BACKGROUND S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is a human-restricted cause of paratyphoid fever, accounting for up to a fifth of all cases of enteric fever in Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this work, we applied an RNA analysis method, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS), and cDNA hybridization-microarray technology to(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human-restricted intracellular pathogen and the cause of typhoid fever. Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection. Despite this, there are limited data on cellular immune responses in humans infected with wild type S. Typhi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS For this(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid and reliable diagnostic assays for enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever are urgently needed. We report the characterization of novel approach utilizing lymphocyte secretions, for diagnosing patients with enteric fever by the TPTest procedure. METHODOLOGY TPTest detects Salmonella-specific IgA responses in lymphocyte culture(More)
BACKGROUND Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns(More)
We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation(More)
UNLABELLED Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) can cause severe diarrhea and death in children in developing countries; however, bacterial diversity in natural infection is uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the natural population variation of ETEC from individuals with cholera-like diarrhea. Genomic sequencing and comparative analysis of multiple ETEC(More)
The avidity of antibodies to specific antigens and the relationship of avidity to memory B cell responses to these antigens have not been studied in patients with cholera or those receiving oral cholera vaccines. We measured the avidity of antibodies to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Bangladeshi adult(More)
BACKGROUND Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are common causes of diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries for which there is currently no vaccine. Heterogeneity in classical ETEC antigens known as colonization factors (CFs) and poor efficacy of toxoid-based approaches to date have impeded development of a broadly protective ETEC(More)