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BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS), and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi(More)
Information is limited on the effect of zinc on immune responses in children with diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacterial pathogen in children. We studied the immunological effect of zinc treatment (20 mg/d) and supplementation (10 mg/d) in children with diarrhea due to ETEC. A total of 148 children aged 6-24 mo(More)
Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is a human-restricted pathogen and the cause of paratyphoid A fever. Using a high-throughput immunoscreening technique, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), we identified 20 immunogenic bacterial proteins expressed in humans who were bacteremic with S. Paratyphi A but not those expressed in S. Paratyphi A(More)
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. C. difficile produces two toxins (A and B), and systemic and mucosal anti-toxin A antibodies prevent or limit C. difficile-associated diarrhea. To evaluate whether transcutaneous immunization with formalin-treated C. difficile toxin A (CDA) induces systemic and mucosal anti-CDA(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human-restricted intracellular pathogen and the cause of typhoid fever. Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection. Despite this, there are limited data on cellular immune responses in humans infected with wild type S. Typhi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS For this(More)
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever and a human-restricted pathogen. Currently available typhoid vaccines provide 50 to 90% protection for 2 to 5 years, and available practical diagnostic assays to identify individuals with typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity. Identifying immunogenic S. Typhi antigens expressed(More)
Patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were analyzed for innate immune factors produced by the epithelium during the disease process. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease. Levels of α-defensin (HD-5 and(More)
BACKGROUND S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose(More)
As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the composite of multiple signals(More)