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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and risk factors or early symptoms amenable to population-based screening. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for PD. RESULTS The strongest associations with later diagnosis of PD were found for having a first-degree or any relative with PD (odds(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate diagnosis and early detection of complex diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, has the potential to be of great benefit for researchers and clinical practice. We aimed to create a non-invasive, accurate classification model for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, which could serve as a basis for future disease prediction studies in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pre-menopausal females have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with age-matched males, implying differences in the mechanisms and pathways regulating vasoactivity. In small arteries, myogenic tone (constriction in response to raised intraluminal pressure) is a major determinant of vascular resistance.(More)
Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease starts years before a clinical diagnosis can be reliably made. The prediagnostic phase of the disease offers a window of opportunity in which disease-modifying therapies-ie, those aimed at delaying or preventing the progression to overt disease and its many complications-could be most beneficial, but no such(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Loss-of-function mutations in GCH1 result in severe reduction of dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells and are the most common cause of DOPA-responsive dystonia, a rare disease that classically presents in childhood with generalized(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease has an insidious onset and is diagnosed when typical motor features occur. Several motor and non-motor features can occur before diagnosis, early in the disease process. We aimed to assess the association between first presentation of several prediagnostic features in primary care and a subsequent diagnosis of Parkinson's(More)
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare disorder, characterised by fluctuating rigidity and stiffness of the axial and proximal lower limb muscles, with superimposed painful spasms and continuous motor unit activity on electromyography. Although rare in general neurology practice, once observed it is unforgettable. The general neurologist may see only one or(More)
OBJECTIVE Parkinson's disease (PD) and osteoporosis are chronic diseases associated with increasing age. Single studies have reported associations between them and the major consequence, namely, increased risk of fractures. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship of PD with osteoporosis, bone mineral density(More)
The field of prediagnostic Parkinson's disease (PD) is fast moving with an expanding range of clinical and laboratory biomarkers, and multiple strategies seeking to discover those in the earliest stages or those 'at risk'. It is widely believed that the highest likelihood of securing neuroprotective benefit from drugs will be in these subjects, preceding(More)
OBJECTIVES To present methods and baseline results for an online screening tool to identify increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) in the UK population. METHODS Risk estimates for future PD were derived from the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD. Participants aged 60-80 years without PD were recruited by(More)