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Our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of addiction is increasing and is leading to more informed development of pharmacotherapy. Although the dopaminergic mesolimbic system plays a central role in 'liking', reward and motivation, medications directly targeting it have not proved a very fruitful approach to treating addictions. A review of the literature(More)
The aim of this study was to make a comparison of brain structure between a group of opioid-dependent subjects and healthy controls. We report the results of an ;optimized' voxel-based morphometry study on a sample of nine opioid-dependent subjects with no comorbid substance misuse disorders versus 21 healthy controls. We found a significant reduction in(More)
Water lead concentrations were measured in 970 households throughout Scotland. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 283 people living in houses with water lead levels of over 0-48 mumol/l (100 mug/l). A highly significant correlation was found between lead concentrations in water and blood. Raised blood lead concentrations were associated with renal(More)
The rewarding properties of some abused drugs are thought to reside in their ability to increase striatal dopamine levels. Similar increases have been shown in response to expectation of a positive drug effect. The actions of opioid drugs on striatal dopamine release are less well characterized. We examined whether heroin and the expectation of heroin(More)
Preclinical evidence suggests the α5 subtype of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor is involved in some of the actions of alcohol and in memory. The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [(11)C]Ro15 4513 shows relative selectivity in labelling the α5 subtype over the other GABA-benzodiazepine receptor subtypes in limbic regions of the brain. We used this(More)
The importance of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and its subtypes are increasingly recognised in addiction. Using the α1/α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET radioligand [(11)C]Ro15 4513, we previously showed reduced binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus in abstinent alcohol dependence. We proposed that reduced [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding in the(More)
Key Points: • Investigation into the structure of X-ray emissions was completed • Maximum X-ray source region radii were between 2 and 3 m • Leaders displayed consistency with both compact and diffuse electron sources structure of X-ray emissions from triggered lightning leaders measured by a pinhole-type X-ray camera, J. Abstract We investigate the(More)