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Mice deficient in the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), constructed by gene-targeting, were significantly more susceptible to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection, displayed a delayed clearance of virus from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and exhibited an increase in the frequency of virus reactivation in DRG compared with similarly infected(More)
Many recent studies of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections within the nervous system have focused on the diploid genes encoding the latency-associated transcripts (LATs). The impaired explant reactivation of LAT variants from mouse trigeminal ganglia has implicated the LATs in the efficiency or speed of the reactivation process (D. A.(More)
There are few data on the persistence of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in the absence of selective drug pressure. We studied 313 patients in whom TDR mutations were detected at their first resistance test and who had a subsequent test performed while ART-naive. The rate at which mutations(More)
Primary tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are an important cause of cancer-related deaths in adults and children. CNS tumours are mostly glial cell in origin and are predominantly astrocytomas. Conventional therapy of high-grade gliomas includes maximal resection followed by radiation treatment. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy provides(More)
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) RL1 deletion mutant 1716 has properties that make it a promising candidate as a viral vector for gene therapy in the human nervous system. These properties include its ability to spread along neural pathways and establish a latent infection in post-mitotic neurons, while retaining a non-virulent phenotype in vivo and(More)
The RL1 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encodes a polypeptide, ICP34.5 which is a specific virulence determinant. RL1 null mutants fail to replicate in both the PNS and CNS and are incapable of causing encephalitis. Additionally, RL1 null mutants have the capacity to replicate in actively dividing cells but fail to replicate in growth arrested or(More)
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) gene 71 encodes a heavily O-glycosylated 192 kDa protein with no identified herpesvirus homologue. Isolation of a deletion mutant in gene 71 (ED71) demonstrated that its protein product is not essential in vitro. To investigate the role of the gene 71 protein in the virus life cycle, ED71 has been characterized in vitro in(More)
BACKGROUND Protease inhibitors (PI) including boceprevir, telaprevir and simeprevir have revolutionised HCV genotype 1 treatment since their introduction. A number of pre-treatment resistance associated amino acid variants (RAVs) and polymorphisms have been associated with reduced response to treatment. OBJECTIVES We measured the prevalence of(More)
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