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BACKGROUND Brain size and intracranial capacity are correlated with cognitive performance in young healthy adults, but data are lacking on these relationships in older healthy adults. OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that intracranial capacity, volumes of specific brain regions, and a measure of the shared variance between brain regions are positively(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Enlarged perivascular spaces in the brain are common but generally overlooked and of uncertain pathophysiology. They may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease. We determined whether enlarged perivascular spaces were associated with lacunar stroke subtype and white matter hyperintensities, markers of established small vessel(More)
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older people and are often thought to indicate cognitive impairment. We reviewed research on the relationship between SMCs and (a) current cognitive function, (b) risk of future cognitive decline, and (c) depression and personality. SMCs were found to be inconsistently related to current cognitive impairment(More)
Interpretation of brain images from older patients requires knowledge of changes that occur with healthy ageing. We constructed and tested a reference template for older subjects. We used MR images from normal subjects aged 65-70 and 75-80 to generate average age-specific images. We ranked the T2-weighted images by worsening brain tissue loss to create a(More)
In aging humans and rodents, inter-individual differences in cognitive function have been ascribed to variations in long-term glucocorticoid exposure. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regenerates the active glucocorticoid cortisol from circulating inert cortisone, thus amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid levels in some tissues.(More)
PURPOSE In ageing animals, exposure to chronic high levels of glucocorticoids is associated with cognitive impairment and hippocampal atrophy. However, there are few studies examining relationships among glucocorticoids, brain volumes and cognitive function in healthy older humans. This study examined the hypotheses that higher plasma cortisol levels and(More)
The purpose of this guideline is to present evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium. The cornerstones of the guideline are the preoperative identification and handling of patients at risk, adequate intraoperative care, postoperative detection of delirium and management of delirious(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients with type II diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment. The retinal and renal complications of diabetes follow microvascular damage permitting small arterioles to leak, hence the cerebral damage might also follow loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium(More)
Recent studies suggest that delirium is associated with risk of dementia and also acceleration of decline in existing dementia. However, previous studies may have been confounded by incomplete ascertainment of cognitive status at baseline. Herein, we used a true population sample to determine if delirium is a risk factor for incident dementia and cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased white matter (WM) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with worse cognitive function in older people. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) commonly coexist with and share some risk factors for WM lesions but are not quantified in published scales. It is not known whether the extent of EPVS is also associated with(More)