Alasdair M. J. MacLullich

Learn More
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Enlarged perivascular spaces in the brain are common but generally overlooked and of uncertain pathophysiology. They may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease. We determined whether enlarged perivascular spaces were associated with lacunar stroke subtype and white matter hyperintensities, markers of established small vessel(More)
BACKGROUND Brain size and intracranial capacity are correlated with cognitive performance in young healthy adults, but data are lacking on these relationships in older healthy adults. OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that intracranial capacity, volumes of specific brain regions, and a measure of the shared variance between brain regions are positively(More)
Interpretation of brain images from older patients requires knowledge of changes that occur with healthy ageing. We constructed and tested a reference template for older subjects. We used MR images from normal subjects aged 65–70 and 75–80 to generate average age-specific images. We ranked the T2-weighted images by worsening brain tissue loss to create a(More)
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older people and are often thought to indicate cognitive impairment. We reviewed research on the relationship between SMCs and (a) current cognitive function, (b) risk of future cognitive decline, and (c) depression and personality. SMCs were found to be inconsistently related to current cognitive impairment(More)
Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features of inattention and cognitive impairment, and associated features including changes in arousal, altered sleep-wake cycle, and other changes in mental status. The main risk factors are old age, cognitive impairment, and other comorbidities. Though delirium has consistent core(More)
In aging humans and rodents, inter-individual differences in cognitive function have been ascribed to variations in long-term glucocorticoid exposure. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regenerates the active glucocorticoid cortisol from circulating inert cortisone, thus amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid levels in some tissues.(More)
PURPOSE In ageing animals, exposure to chronic high levels of glucocorticoids is associated with cognitive impairment and hippocampal atrophy. However, there are few studies examining relationships among glucocorticoids, brain volumes and cognitive function in healthy older humans. This study examined the hypotheses that higher plasma cortisol levels and(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis has great potential to advance understanding of delirium pathophysiology. METHODS A systematic literature review of CSF studies of DSM or ICD delirium was performed. RESULTS In 8 studies of 235 patients, delirium was associated with: elevated serotonin metabolites, interleukin-8, cortisol, lactate and(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased white matter (WM) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with worse cognitive function in older people. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) commonly coexist with and share some risk factors for WM lesions but are not quantified in published scales. It is not known whether the extent of EPVS is also associated with(More)
Delirium is a severe, acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is highly prevalent in acute hospital populations. Delirium has noticeable effects on length of hospitalization, cost of care, mortality and morbidity. In addition to these well-established adverse consequences, there is increasing evidence linking delirium and a higher risk of long-term cognitive(More)