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BACKGROUND Brain size and intracranial capacity are correlated with cognitive performance in young healthy adults, but data are lacking on these relationships in older healthy adults. OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that intracranial capacity, volumes of specific brain regions, and a measure of the shared variance between brain regions are positively(More)
Interpretation of brain images from older patients requires knowledge of changes that occur with healthy ageing. We constructed and tested a reference template for older subjects. We used MR images from normal subjects aged 65-70 and 75-80 to generate average age-specific images. We ranked the T2-weighted images by worsening brain tissue loss to create a(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Enlarged perivascular spaces in the brain are common but generally overlooked and of uncertain pathophysiology. They may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease. We determined whether enlarged perivascular spaces were associated with lacunar stroke subtype and white matter hyperintensities, markers of established small vessel(More)
PURPOSE In ageing animals, exposure to chronic high levels of glucocorticoids is associated with cognitive impairment and hippocampal atrophy. However, there are few studies examining relationships among glucocorticoids, brain volumes and cognitive function in healthy older humans. This study examined the hypotheses that higher plasma cortisol levels and(More)
CONTEXT Studies in animals suggest that the limbic prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, is involved in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but human data are lacking. OBJECTIVE This study tested the hypothesis that smaller anterior cingulate cortex volumes are associated with HPA axis dysregulation in(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased white matter (WM) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with worse cognitive function in older people. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) commonly coexist with and share some risk factors for WM lesions but are not quantified in published scales. It is not known whether the extent of EPVS is also associated with(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients with type II diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment. The retinal and renal complications of diabetes follow microvascular damage permitting small arterioles to leak, hence the cerebral damage might also follow loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium(More)
Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features of inattention and cognitive impairment, and associated features including changes in arousal, altered sleep-wake cycle, and other changes in mental status. The main risk factors are old age, cognitive impairment, and other comorbidities. Though delirium has consistent core(More)
Delirium is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterised by acute deterioration and fluctuations in mental status. It is precipitated mainly by acute illness, trauma, surgery, or drugs. Delirium affects around one in eight hospital inpatients and is associated with multiple adverse consequences, including new institutionalisation, worsening(More)
Subtle cognitive decrements in older people are important in terms of the associated morbidity and as a risk factor for dementia. However, their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) may provide the means to investigate early changes in brain metabolite concentrations. We examined the relationships(More)