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Studies of meiotic recombination have revealed an evolutionary paradox. Molecular and genetic analysis has shown that crossing over initiates at specific sites called hotspots, by a recombinational-repair mechanism in which the initiating hotspot is replaced by a copy of its homolog. We have used computer simulations of large populations to show that this(More)
There are many inputs into the dairy replacement herd which impact not only on the cost of rearing heifers from birth to first calving, but also on their future longevity and production potential. This study determined the current cost of rearing dairy heifers in the UK through the calculation and analysis of individual costs on a subset of 102 UK dairy(More)
Dairy heifers only start to produce a return on investment at first calving. The length of the non-productive rearing period is largely governed by farmer decisions on plane of nutrition and reproduction management. Primary data were collected from 101 dairy farms and a cost analysis workbook developed to calculate individual inputs in each of three periods(More)
Good management of the pregnant heifer is crucial to ensure that she is well grown and healthy and calves down easily before joining the milking herd. This study collected primary data on all aspects of heifer management on 101 UK farms during heifer pregnancy from conception to calving including farm factors and associated costs of system inputs. A cost(More)
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