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An experimental study and a method for simulating the constitutive response of elastomers at temperatures in the chemorheological range (90–150 1C for natural rubber) are presented. A comprehensive set of uniaxial experiments for a variety of prescribed temperature histories is performed on natural rubber specimens that exhibit finite elasticity, entropic(More)
Skeletal muscle is composed of muscle fibers and an extracellular matrix (ECM). The collagen fiber network of the ECM is a major contributor to the passive force of skeletal muscles at high strain. We investigated the effect of aging on the biomechanical and structural properties of epimysium of the tibialis anterior muscles (TBA) of rats to understand the(More)
When an elastomeric material is deformed and subjected to temperatures above some chemorheological value T cr (near 100-C for natural rubber), its macromolecular structure undergoes time and temperature dependent chemical changes. The process continues until the temperature decreases below T cr. Compared to the virgin material, the new material system has(More)
When an elastomeric material is subject to sufficiently high temperature, macromolecular network junctions can undergo time-dependent scission and re-crosslinking (healing). The material system then consists of molecular networks with different reference states. A constitutive framework, based on the experimental work of Tobolsky, is used to determine the(More)
A method is presented for calculating the stress relaxation due to scission in elastomeric components that operate at a fixed deformation while at an elevated temperature. A relationship is established between stresses at different temperatures that is called the correspondence principle for scission/healing materials. Two examples involving cylinders(More)
Skeletal muscle is composed of two primary structural components, contractile myofibrils and extracellular matrix (ECM). The myofibrils adhere to the surrounding endomysium through the basal lamina, sarcolemma and dystrophin, and dystrophin associated glycoprotein (DAG). In this study, a novel shear lag type model is developed to investigate the mechanics(More)
A micromechanical model has been developed to investigate the mechanical properties of the epimysium. In the present model, the collagen fibers in the epimysium are embedded randomly in the ground substance. Two parallel wavy collagen fibers and the surrounding ground substance are used as the repeat unit (unit cell), and the epimysium is considered as an(More)