Alan Waterworth

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Previous investigation of a cost-effective virtual reality arthroscopic training system, the Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System (SKATS), indicated the desirability of including haptic feedback. A formal task analysis confirmed the importance of knee positioning as a core skill for trainees learning to navigate the knee arthroscopically. The system(More)
This paper describes the Sheffield Mk3.5 EIT/EIS system which measures both the real and imaginary part of impedance at 30 frequencies between 2 kHz and 1.6 MHz. The system uses eight electrodes with an adjacent drive/receive electrode data acquisition protocol. The system is modular, containing eight identical data acquisition boards, which contain DSPs to(More)
The Sheffield knee arthroscopy training system (SKATS) was originally a visual-based virtual environment without haptic feedback, but has been further developed as a mixed reality-training environment through the use of tactile augmentation (or passive haptics). The design of the new system is outlined and then tested. In the first experiment described, the(More)
This paper considers tactile augmentation, the addition of a physical object within a virtual environment (VE) to provide haptic feedback. The resulting mixed reality environment is limited in terms of the ease with which changes can be made to the haptic properties of objects within it. Therefore sensory enhancements or illusions that make use of visual(More)
This paper describes the initial development of an innovative haptic device that will be integrated into an existing virtual reality training system for knee arthroscopy. The resulting system will be called WISHKATS (Warwick, Imperial, Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System). This haptic device will enable the trainee to feel realistic forces on the(More)
Through definition of a comprehensive tutorial model, the Warwick, Imperial and Sheffield Haptic Knee Arthroscopy Training System (WISHKATS) aims to provide independent, flexible and consistent training and assessment. The intention is to satisfy user acceptance by limiting the constraints by which the system can be utilised, as well as demonstrating(More)
This paper describes the research behind a part-task approach to both the development of, and the training offered, by a virtual reality simulator for knee arthroscopy. An ethnographic approach has been taken to examine the nature of task performance and the current training of the arthroscopic diagnosis of the knee. This Human Factors research is used to(More)
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conducting polymer that may be electrochemically generated with the incorporation of any anionic species, including net-negatively charged biological molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. In this article, dermatan and chloride-loaded PPy films were prepared on gold sputter-coated coverslips and various skin derived cells(More)
Electrical impedance measurements are used to obtain information about a subject, tissue sample or tissue model under test. There are several ways of obtaining these impedance data and thereafter analysing the data to obtain relevant parameters. This paper shows how a completely isolated drive and receive system using current pulses, as opposed to sine(More)
There is limited research considering the usability of medical virtual environments. Usability evaluation is an essential validation phase that considers the extent to which a product achieves its specific goals, with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. A four-stage iterative approach is adopted to enhance usability in the development of a knee(More)
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