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This paper describes the Sheffield Mk3.5 EIT/EIS system which measures both the real and imaginary part of impedance at 30 frequencies between 2 kHz and 1.6 MHz. The system uses eight electrodes with an adjacent drive/receive electrode data acquisition protocol. The system is modular, containing eight identical data acquisition boards, which contain DSPs to(More)
Previous investigation of a cost-effective virtual reality arthroscopic training system, the Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System (SKATS), indicated the desirability of including haptic feedback. A formal task analysis confirmed the importance of knee positioning as a core skill for trainees learning to navigate the knee arthroscopically. The system(More)
This paper describes the initial development of an innovative haptic device that will be integrated into an existing virtual reality training system for knee arthroscopy. The resulting system will be called WISHKATS (Warwick, Imperial, Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System). This haptic device will enable the trainee to feel realistic forces on the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE According to the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA), anterior circulation (AC) aneurysms of <7 mm in diameter have a minimal risk of rupture. It is general experience, however, that anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysms are frequent and mostly rupture at <7 mm. The aim of the study was to assess(More)
There is limited research considering the usability of medical virtual environments. Usability evaluation is an essential validation phase that considers the extent to which a product achieves its specific goals, with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. A four-stage iterative approach is adopted to enhance usability in the development of a knee(More)
This paper describes the research behind a part-task approach to both the development of, and the training offered, by a virtual reality simulator for knee arthroscopy. An ethnographic approach has been taken to examine the nature of task performance and the current training of the arthroscopic diagnosis of the knee. This Human Factors research is used to(More)
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conducting polymer that may be electrochemically generated with the incorporation of any anionic species, including net-negatively charged biological molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. In this article, dermatan and chloride-loaded PPy films were prepared on gold sputter-coated coverslips and various skin derived cells(More)