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A ccording to the innate immunity concept [1], animals defend themselves from microbes by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. To detect many Gram-negative bacteria, animals use the CD14–MD-2– TLR4 receptor mechanism to recognize the lipid A moiety of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lipid A is a glucosamine disaccharide that carries(More)
Measures that bolster the resolution phase of infectious diseases may offer new opportunities for improving outcome. Here we show that inactivation of microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can be required for animals to recover from the innate immune tolerance that follows exposure to Gram-negative bacteria. When wildtype mice are exposed to small parenteral(More)
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