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The specific hydrolytic activity of PON1 paraoxonase/arylesterase enzymes in liver and blood provides a natural barrier against the entry of organophosphate toxins into the central and peripheral nervous systems. Inherited differences in PON1 enzyme concentrations may determine levels of susceptibility to organophosphate injury in humans. To test whether(More)
A ccording to the innate immunity concept [1], animals defend themselves from microbes by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. To detect many Gram-negative bacteria, animals use the CD14–MD-2– TLR4 receptor mechanism to recognize the lipid A moiety of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lipid A is a glucosamine disaccharide that carries(More)
Much of the inflammatory response of the body to bloodborne Gram-negative bacteria occurs in the liver and spleen, the major organs that remove these bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) from the bloodstream. We show here that LPS undergoes deacylation in the liver and spleen by acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), an endogenous lipase that(More)
Much evidence indicates that bacterial LPS (endotoxin) is removed from the bloodstream mainly by the liver, yet the hepatic uptake mechanisms remain uncertain and controversial. In plasma, LPS can be either 'free' (as aggregates, bacterial membrane fragments or loosely bound to albumin, CD14, or other proteins) or 'bound' (complexed with lipoproteins).(More)
Mutation of the divIVB locus in Bacillus subtilis causes frequent misplacement of the division septum, resulting in circular minicells, short rods, and filaments of various sizes. The divIVB1 mutant allele maps to a region of the chromosome also known to encode sporulation (spo0B, spoIVF, spoIIB) and cell shape (rodB) determinants. This study reports the(More)
We report that promoters for two murine acute-phase protein (APP) genes, complement factor 3 (C3) and serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), can increase recombinant protein expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. To deliver APP promoter-luciferase reporter gene constructs to the liver, where most endogenous APP synthesis occurs, we introduced them into a(More)
A therapeutic dilemma often complicates the management of inflammatory diseases; the benefits gained from reducing inflammation must be balanced against the potentially harmful consequences of chronic immunosuppression. Gene therapy might address this dilemma by producing anti-inflammatory proteins in response to a patient's endogenous signals, so that(More)
To achieve a disease-regulated transgene expression for physiologically responsive gene therapy of arthritis, a hybrid promoter was constructed. The human IL-1 beta enhancer region (-3690 to -2720) upstream of the human IL-6 promoter region (-163 to +12) was essential in mounting a robust response in HIG-82 synovial fibroblasts and in RAW 264,7 macrophages.(More)
The goal of physiologically responsive gene therapy is to allow a host's endogenous regulatory mechanisms to control the production of therapeutic proteins (effectors). Ideally, effector production would be switched on in response to specific signals, stay within therapeutic limits and be switched off when no longer needed. In this way, the unwanted(More)
A transient state of tolerance to microbial molecules accompanies many infectious diseases. Such tolerance is thought to minimize inflammation-induced injury, but it may also alter host defenses. Here we report that recovery from the tolerant state induced by Gram-negative bacteria is greatly delayed in mice that lack acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), a lipase(More)