Alan W Patrick

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Three-hundred and two insulin-treated diabetic patients were questioned about hypoglycaemia using a structured questionnaire interview. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients (75%) had normal symptomatic awareness, 48 (16%) had partial awareness, 21 (7%) had absent awareness of hypoglycaemia, and 7 (2%) denied ever experiencing hypoglycaemia. Patients with(More)
Two groups of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of > 10 years duration and either persistent normoalbuminuria (group 1, n = 49; albumin excretion < 30 mg/day) or microalbuminuria (group 2, n = 33; albumin excretion 30-300 mg/day) were investigated for evidence of free oxygen radical activity (erythrocytic superoxide dismutase and glutathione(More)
Hypoglycemia is a serious problem in insulin-treated diabetic patients. In this study the efficacy of intravenous glucagon (1 mg) was compared with that of intravenous dextrose (25 g) in the treatment of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients attending an accident and emergency department. In addition, the prevailing glycemic control of these patients was(More)
This paper analyzes the employment behavior of home multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Europe. To this end we use a unique firm level panel data set of more than 1,000 European multinational parent enterprises and their affiliates. The affiliates are located either in the European Union (North, South), Central and Eastern Europe or both. We find for parent(More)
A cross-sectional study to assess home glucose monitoring practices was conducted in 200 non-insulin-treated diabetic patients consecutively attending our hospital clinic. Of the 200, 97 (48%) patients (Group 1) regularly monitored urine (n = 74), blood (n = 19) or both (n = 4); 103 (52%) patients (Group 2) performed no home monitoring. The two groups were(More)
The prevalence of microalbuminuria was assessed in 149 consecutive, newly-diagnosed and untreated patients with Type 2 diabetes, 129 of whom were followed up for 1 year, with at least three urine specimens being obtained during this period. At initial presentation, 39 (26%) patients had a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) of greater than 2.5 mg(More)
Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in the microalbuminuric phase of diabetic nephropathy has been attributed to intraglomerular hypertension. This could be caused by constriction of efferent glomerular arterioles, which carry alpha-adrenoceptors. We tested the hypothesis that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients with(More)
To investigate the relationship between awareness of symptoms and the autonomic reaction of hypoglycaemia, acute hypoglycaemia was induced with intravenous insulin (2.5 mU kg-1 min-1) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, all of whom had normal cardiovascular autonomic function tests. Three groups were studied: (1) nine patients with Type 1 diabetes with(More)
Skin thickness is primarily determined by collagen content and is increased in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We measured skin thickness in 66 IDDM patients aged 24-38 yr and investigated whether it correlated with long-term glycemic control and the presence of certain diabetic complications. With univariate analysis, skin thickness was(More)
Cigarette smoke is potentially capable of generating a high free radical load in the body and many patients with diabetes are smokers. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between long-term smoking and free radical activity in young adult insulin-dependent diabetic patients with no evidence of macrovascular disease. Eight-five patients(More)