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The success of an ENSO-based statistical rainfall prediction scheme and the in#uence of ENSO on Australia are shown to vary in association with a coherent, inter-decadal oscillation in surface temperature over the Paci"c Ocean. When this Inter-decadal Paci"c Oscillation (IPO) raises temperatures in the tropical Paci"c Ocean, there is no robust relationship(More)
Ovine primary fetal fibroblasts were cotransfected with a neomycin resistance marker gene (neo) and a human coagulation factor IX genomic construct designed for expression of the encoded protein in sheep milk. Two cloned transfectants and a population of neomycin (G418)-resistant cells were used as donors for nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes. Six(More)
Galactose-alpha1,3-galactose (alpha1,3Gal) is the major xenoantigen causing hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Disruption of the gene encoding pig alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT) by homologous recombination is a means to completely remove the alpha1,3Gal epitopes from xenografts. Here we report the disruption of one allele(More)
An ensemble of twenty four coupled ocean-atmosphere models has been compared with respect to their performance in the tropical Paci®c. The coupled models span a large portion of the parameter space and di€er in many respects. The intercomparison includes TOGA (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere)-type models consisting of high-resolution tropical ocean models(More)
Vg1 is a maternal mRNA localized to the vegetal hemisphere of Xenopus embryos during blastula stages, a region responsible for the induction of mesoderm in the adjacent marginal zone. Its homology to the transforming growth factor-beta family, which includes several proteins with mesoderm-inducing activity, suggests a role for Vg1 as an endogenous(More)
Somatic tissues in female eutherian mammals are mosaic due to random X inactivation. In contrast to mice, X chromosome reactivation does not occur during the reprogramming of human female somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), although this view is contested. Using balanced populations of female Rett patient and control fibroblasts, we(More)
Cultured human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are an invaluable resource because they provide a uniform and stable genetic system for functional analyses and therapeutic applications. Nevertheless, these dividing cells, like other cells, probably undergo spontaneous mutation at a rate of 10(-9) per nucleotide. Because each mutant has only a few progeny,(More)
Since the first report of live mammals produced by nuclear transfer from a cultured differentiated cell population in 1995 (ref. 1), successful development has been obtained in sheep, cattle, mice and goats using a variety of somatic cell types as nuclear donors. The methodology used for embryo reconstruction in each of these species is essentially similar:(More)
The segmental premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a truncated and farnesylated form of Lamin A called progerin. HGPS affects mesenchymal lineages, including the skeletal system, dermis, and vascular smooth muscle (VSMC). To understand the underlying molecular pathology of HGPS, we derived induced pluripotent stem(More)
It is over a decade since the first demonstration that mouse embryonic stem cells could be used to transfer a predetermined genetic modification to a whole animal. The extension of this technique to other mammalian species, particularly livestock, might bring numerous biomedical benefits, for example, ablation of xenoreactive transplantation antigens,(More)