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BACKGROUND In unresectable malignant bile duct obstruction in a patient with a life expectancy longer than 3 months, the use of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) is the standard technique to ensure continued biliary drainage. As many as 50% of patients with SEMSs will present with stent occlusion within 6 months. Changes to stent design and composition(More)
Absorption of urea in the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) contributes to hypertonicity in the medullary interstitium which, in turn, provides the osmotic driving force for water reabsorption. This mechanism is regulated by vasopressin via a cAMP-dependent pathway and activation of a specialized urea transporter located in the apical membrane.(More)
Histidyl residues in peptide transporters PepT1 and PepT2 are believed to participate in proton and substrate binding and to be crucial to the transporters' functional activities. In the present study, we performed mutagenesis of rabbit PepT1. We mutated three histidine residues (H57, H111, and H121) predicted to reside in transmembrane segments, as well as(More)
1. The intestinal H(+)-coupled peptide transporter PepT1, displays a broad substrate specificity and accepts most charged and neutral di- and tripeptides. To study the proton-to-peptide stoichiometry and the dependence of the kinetic parameters on extracellular pH (pHo), rabbit PepT1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and used for uptake studies of(More)
Ion-coupled solute transporters exhibit pre-steady-tate currents that resemble those of voltage-dependent ion channels. These currents were assumed to be mostly due to binding and dissociation of the coupling ion near the extracellular transporter surface. Little attention was given to analogous events that may occur at the intracellular surface. To address(More)
It is currently predicted that the human population, measured globally, will reach 8.9 billion by the year 2050, rising from a figure of just over 6 billion at the turn of the millennium (Harrison and Pearce, 2000). The overwhelming majority of this growthöperhaps as much as 95% (Harrison and Pearce, 2000) öis expected to occur within and around existing(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are tissue-homing T cells recently implicated in HIV pathogenesis. We found that the proportion of MAIT cell in blood and colon of HIV+ patients are reduced in untreated infection. Antiretroviral therapy restored colonic but not blood MAIT cell percentages. We observed a negative correlation between colonic MAIT(More)
Intestinal epithelial cells express hPepT1, an apical transporter responsible for the uptake of a broad array of small peptides. As these could conceivably include n-formyl peptides, we examined whether hPepT1 could transport the model n-formylated peptide fMLP and, if so, whether such cellular uptake of fMLP influenced neutrophil-epithelial interactions.(More)
Invasive pneumococcal infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. B cells play an important role in maintaining serologic memory after infection. IgM memory B cells are significantly reduced in HIV-1-infected patients and their frequency is similar to that observed in other patient groups (splenectomized(More)
HIV infection is associated with immune dysfunction, perturbation of immune-cell subsets and opportunistic infections. CD161++ CD8+ T cells are a tissue-infiltrating population that produce IL17A, IL22, IFN, and TNFα, cytokines important in mucosal immunity. In adults they dominantly express the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, the canonical feature of mucosal(More)