Alan Sandler

Learn More
The effect of spinal cord trauma on the vasculature and blood flow of the spinal cord is reviewed. Both quantitative and nonquantitative studies are critically discussed and reasons sought for some of the major controversies that have arisen. Differences in methodology, species variation, and variation in the degree and type of cord injury may all be(More)
BACKGROUND Outcomes are poor for patients with previously treated, advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab is clinically active against cancer, including NSCLC, especially cancers expressing PD-L1 on tumour cells, tumour-infiltrating immune cells, or both. We assessed(More)
Ketamine hydrochloride is a well known general anesthetic and short acting analgesic in use for almost 3 decades. The role of the NMDA receptor in the processing of nociceptive input has led naturally to renewed clinical interest in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as ketamine. This paper reviews the use and efficacy of low-dose(More)
Spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was measured in 24 rhesus monkeys after injury to the cord produced by the inflatable circumferential extradural cuff technique. Measurement of regional blood flow in the white and gray matter of the cord in areas of 0.1 sq mm was achieved with the 14C-antipyrine autoradiographic technique and a scanning microscope photometer.(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that high dose systemic alfentanil administered before and during abdominal hysterectomy would pre-empt post-operative pain to a greater extent than administration of either low dose alfentanil or no alfentanil perioperatively. Patients (ASA 1 or 2) were randomly assigned to group 1 (n = 15), no opioid; group 2 (n = 15), low(More)
Nicotine has been shown to affect attentional and mnemonic processes. However, whether these effects are due to changes in perceptual and/or motor aspects of the tasks is not at all clear. This study tested the hypothesis that nicotine from cigarette smoking has differential effects on perceptual and motor processes, as reflected by event-related potentials(More)
Treatment decisions for the use of opioid analgesics in chronic non-malignant pain are based primarily on survey data, as evidence from well-controlled clinical trials has been lacking. Forty-six patients with chronic non-malignant pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of controlled-release (CR) codeine. Following a(More)
The field of spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) is reviewed. The methodology currently being used to evaluate SCBF is critically analyzed. The review demonstrates that there is a paucity of reliable quantitative measurements of SCBF. The effects of arterial pCO2, pO2 and blood pressure variations as well as the effects of several pharmacological agents on SCBF(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that patients receiving epidural bupivacaine before surgery would require less morphine postoperatively and/or report less intense pain than patients receiving epidural bupivacaine after incision but before the end of surgery. Forty-two patients (ASA class I-III) scheduled for lower abdominal surgery were randomly(More)
The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases are being explored as targets for antiangio-genic cancer therapy. Radiotherapy also inhibits tumor growth and affects vasculature. We investigated the combination of the potent VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 and ionizing radiation in cell culture and mouse models of lung(More)