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Information about the rheological characteristics of the aqueous cytoplasm can be provided by analysis of the rotational motion of small polar molecules introduced into the cell. To determine fluid-phase cytoplasmic viscosity in intact cells, a polarization microscope was constructed for measurement of picosecond anisotropy decay of fluorescent probes in(More)
A role for aquaporins (AQPs) in hearing has been suggested from the specific expression of aquaporins in inner ear and the need for precise volume regulation in epithelial cells involved in acoustic signal transduction. Using mice deficient in selected aquaporins as controls, we localized AQP1 in fibrocytes in the spiral ligament and AQP4 in supporting(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a mercurial-insensitive, water-selective channel that is expressed in astroglia and basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia in the kidney collecting duct, airways, stomach, and colon. A targeting vector for homologous recombination was constructed using a 7-kb SacI AQP4 genomic fragment in which part of the exon 1 coding sequence was(More)
The glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been hypothesized to modulate water and potassium fluxes associated with neuronal activity. In this study, we examined the seizure phenotype of AQP4 -/- mice using in vivo electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. AQP4 -/- mice were found to have dramatically prolonged(More)
Functional interaction of glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 has been suggested from their apparent colocalization and biochemical interaction, and from the slowed glial cell K+ uptake in AQP4-deficient brain. Here, we report multiple lines of evidence against functionally significant AQP4-Kir4.1 interactions.(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the CNS and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. Little is known about the potential for AQP4 to influence synaptic plasticity, although many studies have shown that it regulates the response of the CNS to injury. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in AQP4(More)
Acidification of the endosomal pathway is important for ligand and receptor sorting, toxin activation, and protein degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases. Fluorescent probes and imaging methods were developed to measure pH to better than 0.2 U accuracy in individual endocytic vesicles in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Endosomes were pulse labeled with transferrin(More)
Molecular diffusion in the brain extracellular space (ECS) is an important determinant of neural function. We developed a brain surface photobleaching method to measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in the ECS of the cerebral cortex. The ECS in mouse brain was labeled by exposure of the intact dura to fluorescein-dextrans (M(r) 4,(More)
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel protein expressed widely in vascular endothelia, where it increases cell membrane water permeability. The role of AQP1 in endothelial cell function is unknown. Here we show remarkably impaired tumour growth in AQP1-null mice after subcutaneous or intracranial tumour cell implantation, with reduced tumour vascularity and(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein expressed in astrocytes throughout the CNS. In brain, AQP4 facilitates water balance and glial scar formation, which are important determinants of outcome after injury. Here, we provide evidence for AQP4-dependent spinal cord swelling following compression injury, resulting in remarkably improved outcome in(More)