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Human gastric carcinoma shows a higher prevalence of microsatellite instability (MSI) than does any other type of sporadic human cancer. The reasons for this high frequency of MSI are not yet known. In contrast to endometrial and colorectal carcinoma, mutations of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes hMLH1 or hMSH2 have not been described in gastric(More)
BACKGROUND The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) locus on chromosome 5q21-22 shows frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in esophageal carcinomas. However, the prevalence of truncating mutations in the APC gene in esophageal carcinomas is low. Because hypermethylation of promoter regions is known to affect several other tumor suppressor genes, we(More)
BACKGROUND E (epithelial)-cadherin, the cell adhesion molecule also considered a potential invasion/metastasis suppressor, is mutationally inactivated in nearly half of all undifferentiated-scattered (diffuse-type) gastric carcinomas. In addition, silencing of E-cadherin by CpG methylation within its promoter region has been reported in several gastric(More)
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene is mutationally inactivated in both familial and sporadic forms of colorectal cancers. In addition, hypermethylation of CpG islands in the upstream portion of APC, a potential alternative mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation, has been described in colorectal cancer. Because a subset of(More)
Twelve to 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers display defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR), manifested as microsatellite instability (MSI). In this group of cancers, promoter hypermethylation of the MMR gene hMLH1 is strongly associated with, and believed to be the cause of, MSI. A subset of colorectal neoplastic lesions arising in inflammatory bowel disease(More)
A significant portion of gastric cancers exhibit defective DNA mismatch repair, manifested as microsatellite instability (MSI). High-frequency MSI (MSI-H) is associated with hypermethylation of the human mut-L homologue 1 (hMLH1) mismatch repair gene promoter and diminished hMLH1 expression in advanced gastric cancers. However, the relationship between MSI(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is an important regulator of normal and malignant cell growth. It modulates the mitogenic effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by inhibiting growth through mechanisms both dependent on and independent of IGF binding. IGF-I and IGF-II levels are regulated by binding to the IGF-II receptor, which(More)
Esophagin is a member of the small proline-rich protein family of cell envelope precursor proteins, which are expressed during squamous cell differentiation. Esophagin is expressed at high levels in normal esophageal epithelium, but its expression is absent from esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Moreover, loss of esophagin expression(More)
In the presence of TMSOTf and a trialkylamine base, acetic acid undergoes aldol addition to non-enolizable aldehydes under exceptionally mild conditions. Acidic workup yields the beta-hydroxy carboxylic acid. The reaction appears to proceed via a three-step, one-pot process, including in situ trimethylsilyl ester formation, bis-silyl ketene acetal(More)
splice site in intron 1 was observed in three colon cancers and four esophageal cancers. All of these DNA sequence alterations were present in matched normal DNA from the same subjects, which suggests that some or all of them may represent polymorphisms. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the germ-line nonconservative amino acid substitutions(More)