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The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a mediator of endocrine and behavioural responses to stress, and the related hormone urocortin (Ucn) are coordinated by two receptors, Crhr1 (encoded by Crhr) and Crhr2. These receptors may exhibit distinct functions due to unique tissue distribution and pharmacology. Crhr-null mice have defined central(More)
BACKGROUND The myocardial performance index (MPI) is a Doppler-based measure of left ventricular (LV) function. It is noninvasive, independent of LV shape, and does not require dimensional measurements. However, it has never been validated in mice. METHODS A total of 29 anesthetized mice with LV pressure catheters underwent echocardiography(More)
OBJECTIVE Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality to define cerebral white-matter injury (WMI) in preterm survivors, the histopathological features of MRI-defined chronic lesions are poorly defined. We hypothesized that chronic WMI is related to a combination of delayed oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cell death and arrested(More)
Children who survive preterm birth exhibit persistent unexplained disturbances in cerebral cortical growth with associated cognitive and learning disabilities. The mechanisms underlying these deficits remain elusive. We used ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate in a preterm large-animal model that cerebral ischemia impairs cortical(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine whether the increase in fetal cardiac mass and cardiac output in chronic anemia is accompanied by changes in capillary density or size or changes in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that has previously been shown to activate(More)
Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, stimulates virtually continuous breathing movements in the fetal sheep. We measured blood flow (radioactive microsphere distribution) to major brain regions and analyzed arterial and sagittal vein blood samples for oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, pH and for oxygen contents and glucose concentrations in 13 fetal(More)
We investigated the relationship between mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) and blood volume in nonpregnant (NP), estrogen-treated (E), and pregnant (P) guinea pigs. Reversible circulatory arrest was produced by rapid ventricular pacing or acetylcholine in unanesthetized animals remote from surgery. MCFP (mmHg) was higher for E (7.1 +/- 0.3) than for(More)
The early time period following ischemia may be of pathogenetic importance in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Global cerebral oligemia was induced in ten late gestation fetal sheep by inflation of a balloon occluder around the brachiocephalic artery. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen, glucose, and lactate net flux, and oxygen delivery were measured by the Fick(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE White matter injury (WMI) is the leading cause of brain injury in preterm survivors and results in myelination failure. Although axonal degeneration occurs in necrotic lesions, the role of axonopathy in myelination failure remains controversial for diffuse non-necrotic WMI, which is currently the major form of WMI. We determined the(More)
Interstitial fluid fluxes are much greater in the fetus than in the adult, and filtration rates are increased over control in most tissues of the anaemic fetus. Increased capillary filtration may lead to cardiac oedema which, in turn, severely impacts cardiac function. Mechanisms that underlie these differences in flux are incompletely understood. One(More)