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Animals can find a hidden goal in several ways. They might use a cognitive map that encodes information about the geometric relationship between the goal and two or more landmarks. Alternatively, they might use a heading vector that specifies the direction and distance of the goal from a single landmark. Rats with damage to the hippocampus have difficulty(More)
The spinal neurons in the embryos and young larvae of two amphibians (Xenopus and Triturus) and two fish (Oryzias and Brachydanio) are described and compared. They can be placed into a limited number of common neuron classes: Rohon-Beard sensory, dorsolateral and dorsolateral commissural sensory interneurons, inhibitory ascending interneurons, two classes(More)
Motor networks typically generate several related output patterns or gaits where individual neurons may be shared or recruited between patterns. We investigate how a vertebrate locomotor network is reconfigured to produce a second rhythmic motor pattern, defining the detailed pattern of neuronal recruitment and consequent changes in the mechanism for rhythm(More)
Neurobiotin was injected into individual spinal interneurons in the Xenopus tadpole to discern their anatomical features and complete axonal projection patterns. Four classes of interneuron are described, with names defining their primary axon projection: Dorsolateral ascending and commissural interneurons are predominantly multipolar cells with somata and(More)
The neuronal basis of the excitation received by motoneurones during swimming in curarized Xenopus embryos has been investigated further. Extracellular stimulation of axons in the fibre tracts of the spinal cord has been used to evoke unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials (p.s.p.s) in motoneurones. The p.s.p.s. had a rise time of 3-5 ms and a long(More)
Rohon-Beard neurones show substance P-like immunoactivity in their somas and in their centrally projecting axons. Peripherally, the morphology of their free nerve endings within the trunk skin has been shown using horseradish peroxidase staining. The excitation of Rohon-Beard neurones by natural and electrical stimulation of the skin has been examined using(More)
It is rare to be able to explain the behaviour of a whole animal at the level of the properties and connections of characterized CNS neurones. In a marine mollusc, Clione, and a lower vertebrate embryo, Xenopus, it is possible to make intracellular recordings during fictive swimming behaviour. This has allowed us to analyse the operation of two central(More)
The young Xenopus tadpole is a very simple vertebrate that can swim. We have examined its behavior and neuroanatomy, and used immobilized tadpoles to study the initiation, production, coordination, and termination of the swimming motor pattern. We will outline the sensory pathways that control swimming behavior and the mainly spinal circuits that produce(More)
The dorsolateral spinal cord of embryonic Xenopus laevis has previously been shown to contain two anatomical classes of interneurones with dendrites in the dorsal tract where they could be contacted by the central axons of Rohon-Beard cells (Roberts & Clarke, 1982). The activity of these neurones within the dorsolateral spinal cord has been examined using(More)
In three experiments, rats in a swimming pool were trained to find a submerged platform with a beacon attached to it. For some rats this beacon unambiguously identified the location of the platform; for others the beacon was made ambiguous by placement of an identical beacon in a different part of the pool. Test trials, in the absence of the platform and(More)