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The spinal neurons in the embryos and young larvae of two amphibians (Xenopus and Triturus) and two fish (Oryzias and Brachydanio) are described and compared. They can be placed into a limited number of common neuron classes: Rohon-Beard sensory, dorsolateral and dorsolateral commissural sensory interneurons, inhibitory ascending interneurons, two classes(More)
Rohon-Beard neurones show substance P-like immunoactivity in their somas and in their centrally projecting axons. Peripherally, the morphology of their free nerve endings within the trunk skin has been shown using horseradish peroxidase staining. The excitation of Rohon-Beard neurones by natural and electrical stimulation of the skin has been examined using(More)
Competitive athletes completed two studies of 2-h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O(2) uptake followed by 7 kJ/kg time trial (TT) with carbohydrate (CHO) intake before (2 g/kg) and during (6% CHO drink) exercise. In Study A, 12 subjects received either 6 mg/kg caffeine 1 h preexercise (Precaf), 6 x 1 mg/kg caffeine every 20 min throughout SS (Durcaf),(More)
Motor networks typically generate several related output patterns or gaits where individual neurons may be shared or recruited between patterns. We investigate how a vertebrate locomotor network is reconfigured to produce a second rhythmic motor pattern, defining the detailed pattern of neuronal recruitment and consequent changes in the mechanism for rhythm(More)
Neurobiotin was injected into individual spinal interneurons in the Xenopus tadpole to discern their anatomical features and complete axonal projection patterns. Four classes of interneuron are described, with names defining their primary axon projection: Dorsolateral ascending and commissural interneurons are predominantly multipolar cells with somata and(More)
The neuronal basis of the excitation received by motoneurones during swimming in curarized Xenopus embryos has been investigated further. Extracellular stimulation of axons in the fibre tracts of the spinal cord has been used to evoke unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials (p.s.p.s) in motoneurones. The p.s.p.s. had a rise time of 3-5 ms and a long(More)
The dorsolateral spinal cord of embryonic Xenopus laevis has previously been shown to contain two anatomical classes of interneurones with dendrites in the dorsal tract where they could be contacted by the central axons of Rohon-Beard cells (Roberts & Clarke, 1982). The activity of these neurones within the dorsolateral spinal cord has been examined using(More)
The response of the foot to touch during walking depends on whether it is in the air or on the ground. In most animals, reflex responses to external stimuli are similarly adapted to their timing in the locomotor cycle, but there is only fragmentary information about the neural mechanisms involved. In arthropods, reflex modulation can occur in the sensory(More)