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Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) has become a common tool in intraspecific phylogeography. To evaluate the validity of its inferences, NCPA was applied to actual data sets with 150 strong a priori expectations, the majority of which had not been analysed previously by NCPA. NCPA did well overall, but it sometimes failed to detect an expected(More)
Accurately determining the distribution of rare variants is an important goal of human genetics, but resequencing of a sample large enough for this purpose has been unfeasible until now. Here, we applied sanger sequencing of genomic PCR amplicons to resequence the diabetes-associated genes KCNJ11 and HHEX in 13,715 people (10,422 European Americans and(More)
Habitat fragmentation often arises from human-induced alterations to the matrix that reduce or eliminate dispersal between habitat patches. Elimination of dispersal increases local extinction and decreases recolonization. These phenomena were observed in the eastern collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris collaris), which lives in the mid-continental highland(More)
SUMMARY We present the software implementation of the tree scanning method to detect associations between genetic haplotypes and quantitative traits, utilizing the evolutionary history of the haplotypes, in samples of unrelated individuals. AVAILABILITY The program is available free of charge, under the GNU General Public License. A package including C(More)
BACKGROUND Recombination between strains of HIV-1 only occurs in individuals with multiple infections, and the incidence of recombinant forms implies that multiple infection is common. Most direct studies indicate that multiple infection is rare. We determined the rate of multiple infection in a longitudinal study of 58 HIV-1 positive participants from The(More)
MOTIVATION Inference of haplotypes from genotype data is crucial and challenging for many vitally important studies. The first, and most critical step, is the ascertainment of a biologically sound model to be optimized. Many models that have been proposed rely partially or entirely on reducing the number of unique haplotypes in the solution. RESULTS This(More)
Phylogenetic and geographic evidence suggest that many parthenogenetic organisms have evolved recently and have spread rapidly. These patterns play a critical role in our understanding of the relative merits of sexual versus asexual reproductive modes, yet their interpretation is often hampered by a lack of detail. Here we present a detailed phylogeographic(More)
Phasing genotype data to identify the composite haplotype pairs is a widely-studied problem due to its value for understanding genetic contributions to diseases, population genetics research, and other significant endeavors. The accuracy of the phasing is crucial as identification of haplotypes is frequently the first step of expensive and vitally important(More)