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Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) has become a common tool in intraspecific phylogeography. To evaluate the validity of its inferences, NCPA was applied to actual data sets with 150 strong a priori expectations, the majority of which had not been analysed previously by NCPA. NCPA did well overall, but it sometimes failed to detect an expected(More)
Because some genes have been cloned that have a known biochemical or physiological function, genetic variation can be measured in a population at loci that may directly influence a phenotype of interest. With this measured genotype approach, specific alleles or haplotypes in the probed DNA region can be assigned phenotypic effects. In this paper we address(More)
Accurately determining the distribution of rare variants is an important goal of human genetics, but resequencing of a sample large enough for this purpose has been unfeasible until now. Here, we applied Sanger sequencing of genomic PCR amplicons to resequence the diabetes-associated genes KCNJ11 and HHEX in 13,715 people (10,422 European Americans and(More)
Contingency tests of neutrality are performed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) DNA sequences from hominoid primates, including humans. An intra-/interspecific haplotype tree is estimated, including a statistical assessment of ambiguities in tree topology and branch lengths. Four functional mutational categories are considered: silent and(More)
Present-day associations between haplotypes at a candidate locus and phenotypes exist when phenotypically important mutations occurred at some point during the evolution of the current array of genetic variation. A cladistic statistical design can be defined that focuses power by using the evolutionary history of the candidate DNA region. This paper shows(More)
We use evolutionary trees of haplotypes to study phenotypic associations by exhaustively examining all possible biallelic partitions of the tree, a technique we call tree scanning. If the first scan detects significant associations, additional rounds of tree scanning are used to partition the tree into three or more allelic classes. Two worked examples are(More)
Nei and Tajima (1985) recently have criticized my algorithms (Templeton 1983a, 19833) that make phylogenetic inference from restriction-site maps. The purpose of this letter is to address their criticisms and to examine the reasons for our difference of opinion concerning the range of validity of my algorithms. These points will also be illustrated by a(More)
Haplotype variation in 9.7 kb of genomic DNA sequence from the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was scored in three populations: African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi (24 individuals), Finns from North Karelia, Finland (24), and non-Hispanic whites from Rochester, Minnesota (23). Earlier analyses had indicated that recombination was common but(More)
SUMMARY We present the software implementation of the tree scanning method to detect associations between genetic haplotypes and quantitative traits, utilizing the evolutionary history of the haplotypes, in samples of unrelated individuals. AVAILABILITY The program is available free of charge, under the GNU General Public License. A package including C(More)